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Georges Florovsky

Ways of Russian Theology



1. From 1801 to 1825 Russia was ruled by Alexander I, the "enigmatic tsar." Alexander was born in 1777, the first son of the Grand Duke and future emperor Paul. His education, however, was supervised by his grandmother Catherine the Great, who hired as his tutor the Swiss republican Cesar La Harpe, and thus Alexander was reared in the atmosphere of the Enlightenment. He acquired an early reputation as a liberal, promising to grant Russia a constitution when he came to power, and also took great care to improve education (five new universities were established in his reign). Meanwhile Alexander's foreign policy  through the complex years of the Napoleonic wars proved ultimately successful: the borders of the Russian empire were extended virtually to their 1914 limits and Russia emerged as a dominant force in European politics. By the time of Russia's defeat of Napoleon Alexander was openly exhibiting his tendencies to mysticism and the occult, lending his imperial ear to all manner of prophets and seers. Mystical societies were given free reign in Russia, and with the lifting of restrictions on foreign travel and the importation of foreign books, not to mention the direct contact with Europe through invasion and conquest,  Russia was inundated by new and diverse ideas. Alexander himself began to travel ceaselessly throughout his empire and throughout Europe, devoting himself to such far-fetched schemes inspired by his mystical interests as the "Holy Alliance," and more and more he began to leave the conduct of state affairs to subordinates. The last four years of his reign, after he became obsessed with revolutionaries and was convinced that the mystical societies he had earlier fostered were conspiring against the established order, were marked by obscurantism and repression.

2. Ivan Sergeevich Aksakov (1823-1886), poet, editor of the journal Russkaia beseda and publisher of the newspaper Den', was a noted figure in Russian society in his time. In the 1860's he emerged as the leading ideologist of the Slavophiles.

3. The Pis'ma russkago puteshestvennika were written by Nikolai Karamzin after a journey through Germany, Switzerland, France and England in 1789-1790. In them he describes foreign values, customs and ideas in the style of l8th century European sentimental literature, especially Laurence Sterne's A Sentimental Journey (1768). Karamzin also used them to express his ideas on politics and education. The Letters were actually written over a period f ten years, the first part appearing in Karamzin's Moscow Journal in 1791-1792, the second part in the collection Aglaia in 1794-1795, and the last part came out in 1801. They are often considered the highest point of Russian prose in the l8th century.

4. See chapter III, note 47.

5. See chapter IV, note 114.

6. Russian military forces irrst enteted the European wars against Napoleon in 1805, when they were routed by the French in the battle of Austerlitz. At the same time Russia was involved from 1806-1812 in a war with Turkey. After more costly setbacks at the hands of the French in 1806 and 1807, Alexander and Napoleon had their famous meeting on the Nieman River near Tilsit resulting in a Russo-French alliance. Immediately Russia went to war with Sweden and annexed Finland and the Aland Islands. Meanwhile the alliance with France was rapidly deteriorating until on June 24, 1812, after conquering  Austria, Napoleon led an army of close to 600,000 men across the Russian frontier. After a costly but inconclusive battle near Borodino the Russian army withdrew behind Moscow. Napoleon occupied the empty, ancient capital for 33 days, waiting for Alexander to sue for peace. This was a humiliating time for Russia, and Alexander's prestige was at a low ebb. Napoleon, however, had no choice but to retreat without Alexander's submission before winter set in, and hounded by peasant guerillas, an early onset of freezing weather, and the lack of adequate roads and supplies in Russia he finally escaped in December with only 30,000 demoralized troops. To Alexander it seemed as if the elements had miraculously delivered him from the invader, and Russian armies, joined by the Austrians and the Prussians, pressed on after the French. On March 31, 1813  Alexander and Frederick Wilhelm III of Prussia made a triumphant entry into Paris, forcing Napoleon into his first exile and leaving Alexander the most powerful ruler in Europe and convinced more than ever of being chosen by God for a special mission.

7. Filaret, metropolitan of Moscow from 1821 to 1867, was the most outstanding Russian hierarch of the l9th century. Born Vasilii Mikhailovich Drozdov in Kolomna in 1783, he first attended the Kolomna Seminary, then the Trinity Seminary in Moscow. Upon graduation he taught Greek, Hebrew and poetics at the latter. In 1808 he became a monk with the name Filaret and was sent to St. Petersburg as inspector of the academy and professor of philosophy and theology. Filaret was named rector of the St. Petersburg Academy in 1812, and during his tenure there he became well-known in society for his preaching, his polemics with the Jesuits and his promotion of Biblical studies and translation, to which end he participated in the ill-fated Russian Bible Society. In 1817 Filaret was consecrated bishop of Revel, in 1819 he became archbishop of  Tver' and a member of the Synod, in 1820 he was transferred to the see of Iaroslavl, and finally in 1821 he moved to Moscow as metropolitan, where he remained until his death 46 years later. Filaret's life and his varied and important activity and literary work is discussed in detail below, sections VII and VIII.

8. Filipp Filippovich Vigel' (1786-1856) was a long-time government official, in his youth a member of the pro-Karamzin literary society Arzamas and later in life an extreme reactionary. His Memoirs (Moscow, 1864-1865) provide abundant information on customs, events and Russian literary life in the first third of the l9th century.

9. In classical mythology Astrea was the goddess of justice and later became a poetic symbol of purity and innocence. She was the last goddess to leave the earth after the Golden Age and became the constellation Virgo. At the very beginning of the Russian "Enlightenment," the coronation of Elizabeth, the empress had a statue of her built, and the last important Russian masonic lodge was named Astrea.

10. This occurred when Alexander was attempting to persuade the Prussian king to join a coalition against Napoleon. Alexander and Frederick Wilhelm III, with his queen Louise watching, swore an oath of eternal friendship in the underground crypt of Frederick the Great in Potsdam.

11. The important statesman Mikhail Mikhailovich Speranskii (1772-1839) was a mason. The son of a priest, he attended St. Petersburg Seminary and also taught there while also serving as a secretary for an influentiat nobleman, Prince Kurakin. Through the latter Speranskii was able to enter government service and rapidly rose through the Table of Ranks. In 1807 he became a secretary and assistant to Alexander and was known as a competent statesman, drafting educational, financial and administrative reforms. Speranskii gained fame, as well as numerous enemies, with his 1809 proposal for a constitution for Russia. One part of his proposal, the creation of a State Council appointed by the emperor, was carried out in 1810 but for the rest Speranskii was exiled to ,Siberia the following year. Even in exile Speranskii worked in the provincial administration, and  he was called back to St. Petersburg in 1821 to serve on the State Council he created. Under Nicholas I he served on the special court which tried the Decembrists in the emperor's personal chancellery, and on his secret committee to investigate the peasant problem. His chief contribution to Russian history, however, was his collection and digest of Russian laws, the Polnoe sobranie zakonov rossiiskoi imperii (1830) and Svod zakonov rossiisskoi imperii (1832-1839). See Marc Raeff, Michael Speransky, Statesman of Imperial Russia, 1772-1839 (The Hague, 1957).

12. Koshelev had served in the Horse Guards and as ambassador to Denmark under Paul, and was largely responsible for both Golitsyn's and Alexander's turn to mysticism. He served in various capacities in Alexander's government, being named a member of the State Council in 1810, but he retired from all of his positions in 1818 to devote himself entirely to spreading his  mystical ideas in St. Petersburg society.

13. Johann Kaspar Lavater (1741-1801) was a leader of the anti-rationalist religious movement in Switzerland. A Protestant minister, he was the author of numerous poems and folk songs, but is best remembered as the founder of the pseudo-science of physiognomy, which seeks traces of divine being in human features. His Physiognomische Fragmente zur Beforderungder Menschenkenntnis und Menschenliebe (4 volumes, 1775-1778) was read all over Europe. For LouisClaude de Saint-Martin, see chapter IV, note 121. Karl von Eckartshausen (1752- 1803) was an enorrriously prolific Bavarian writer who began his career as a respected jurist and man of the Enlightenment before turning to mysticism and alchemy. Eckartshausen was personally acquainted with I.V. Lopukhin, who first translated his works into Russian, and though he remained almost unknown everywhere else, in Russia he became immensely popular and eventually virtually all of his works were translated.

14. Aleksandr Nikolaevich Golitsyn (1773-1844), known as quite the rogue in his early days, was converted to mystical pursuits by Koshelev and eventually became a virtual dictator of religious affairs in Russia. The scion of one of Russia's oldest noble families, Golitsyn developed a permanent friendship with Alexander when he was a young page at Catherine II's court. When Alexander ascended the throne he appointed his old friend Over Procurator of the Holy Synod. In 1810 he was also made head of the department of foreign confessions, and in 1816 became Minister of Popular Education. Golitsyn reached his  high point in 1817 when he was named head of a new dual ministry of Ecclesiastical Affairs and Public Education. At the same time he was head of the postal department and president of the Russian Bible Society. GoHtsyn was known for philanthropical work with the poor, widows and prisoners as well as for his ruthless exercise of his supreme power over all religious matters. His enormous power, however, also brought him many enemies, chief of which was his only rival in the government, Arakcheev (see below, note 115). Finally in 1824 Golitsyn was forced to leave his positions in the Bible Society and the dual ministry. He retained, however, his command of the postal department (which, though insignificant in itself gave him a seat in the meetings of the Council of Ministers) as well as the tsar's confidence and friendship. Under Nicholas I he also preserved great influence and foi a time presided over the meetings of the State Council, of which he had been a member since 1810.

15. St. Francis de Sales (1567-1622), a student of Antonio Possevino at Padua and the bishop of Geneva, was known for his struggle with the Calvinists in Switzerland and for his mystical works. His writings were practical and intended for people with active lives in the world, and include Introduction to the Devout Life (1609) and Treatise on the Love of God (1616).

16. Perhaps the greatest woman mystic of the Roman Catholic Church, St. Teresa (1515-1582), the reformer of the Carmelite order for nuns, wrote several works recognized as classics on the contemplative life. Among them are The Way of Perfection (1583), The Interior Castle (1588) and Spiritual Relations, Exclamations of the Soul to God (1588). Besides numerous poems and letters she also left an autobiography, The Life of the Mother Teresa of Jesus (1611).

17. Often attributed, with varying degrees of certainty, to Thomas a Kempis (1380-1471), the Imitation of Christ is one of the best known of all classics of spiritual literature. It marked the beginning of a whole new approach to spirituality at the end of the Middle Ages in the western world, the Devotio moderna. This spiritual attitude, arising in the Netherlands and the German states, emphasized personal interior and exterior asceticism, the reading of Holy Scripture, meditation on the human life of Christ and intellectual simplicity, in contrast to the earlier sophisticated and speculative spirituality of the Scholastics.

18. The Dominican mystic Johann Tauler (c.1300-1361) was a student of Meister Eckhart. He preached and lectured at Strassbourg and Basel, expounding a mystical theology based on Aquinas that gained many adherents because of its practical, rather than speculative, character. Although various writings have been attributed to him, he actually left nothing extant. His sermons, however; were published and widely read.

19. Johann Heinrich Jung (1740-1817) was a physician and economics professor at Marburg, famous for his mystical writings. The "Stilling" attached to his name comes from the pietist ideal of inner peace, of Stille. Jung enjoyed extensive popularity during his lifetime, particularly among masons and pietists. The prophet of a millenium to be ushered in by a new Church, a higher, spiritual form of mystical Christianity uniting and superseding all confessions, he came to regard Alexander as a chosen instrument of God destined to bring his new Church in from the East. Alexander personaily visited him while attending the European peace conferences of 1814. Among Jung-Stilling's many works are Das Heimweh (1794-1797), an allegorical novel translated into Russian and serialized by the Moscow University press in 1817-1818, Theorie der Geisterkunde (1808), and his autobiography, Heinrich Stillings Leben (5 volumes, 1806), the first volume of which was published by the German poet Goethe in 1777 and is still valuable for its depiction of village life in the l8th century.

20. Barbara Juliane, Freifrau von Kriidener (1764-1824) was a Latvian woman from Riga who married a Russian diplomat there in 1782 and for the next 22 years devoted herself to amorous escapades. After her husband's death in 1802 she published an autobiographical novel Valerie (Paris, 1804), then underwent a conversion to a pietist mysticism with apocalyptical strains. She traveled through Germany and Switzerland holding Bible classes, and in 1815 she met Alexander, who came briefly under her sway and attended some of  her meetings.She then lived in St. Petersburg, but was exiled in 1821  for espousing the cause of the Greek revolutionaries and died in a pietist colony in the Crimea. Although Baroness Krudener claimed credit for the famous Holy Alliance (see below) her actual influence on it was limited.

21. Henri-Louis Empeitaz (or Empaytaz, 1790-1853) was expelled from the theological school in Geneva for his leadership in the Societe des Amis, an unauthoiized pietist Bible group. He went on to become a disciple of Baroness Kriidener, and later returned to a parish in Geneva. Among his works is Considerations sur la divinite de Jesu-Christ.

22. Johann Friedrich Oberlin (1740-1826) was a Lutheran pastor known for his extensive philanthropical activity in his native Walderback as well as for his spiritual guidance. In his popular and successful sermons he combined the rationalism of Rousseau with the mysficism of Jung-Stilling and Swedenborg. The Ohio city and college is named after him.

23. The Moravian Brethren were descendants of the Czech Hussites. The Quakers, or Society of Friends, were a non-structured ChIistian society founded in England by George Fox (1624-1691). The Herrnhutters trace their origin to an early l8th century community in Saxony known as the Herrnhut [Watch of the Lord]. All three were related to l8th century German pietism and all three found Russia attractive for missionary work, especially after Catherine's decrees of religious toleration (1762 and 1763) and the opening of Russia's vast southern and eastern regions to foreign colonization.

24. Feodosii Levitskii (1791-1845) had earlier written a treatise on the nearness of the last judgment, which he sent to Golitsyn. Through the latter he was invited to St. Petersburg in 1823 and granted an audience with the tsar. The next year Levitskii's life-long friend and cohort Fedor Lisevich was also allowed to come to the capital and together they gave frequent sermons and speeches on the end of the world. Levitskii was soon forbidden to preach and sent away to a monastery because his sermons were also often critical of the government. He returned to Balta in 1827 and produced numerous eschatological works, which were popular with Old Believers and the Skoptsy.

25. Fotii gained prominence in Russia in the 1820's with his vocal attacks on the mystical trends in society, which helped bring about Prince A.N. Golitsyn's fall from power. Born Petr Nikitich Spasskii in 1792, he studied at the Novgorod Seminary and spent a year at the St. Petersburg Academy before becoming a teacher in the Aleksandr Nevskii elementary school. He became a monk in 1817 and taught at the Second Military Academy before being sent to a monastery outside Novgorod in 1820 for the criticism of the nobility's religious leanings in his sermons. During his brief "exile" he became friends with Countess A.A.Orlova (see note 113) who, together with Fotii's sympathizers  among the upper clergy, was able to secure his appointment as an archimandrite in the Aleksandr Nevskii Monastery in 1822. Fotii's influence grew as he gained adherents  among the upper levels of society, particularly among noble women, and he even became intimate with Golitsyn. The latter was impzessed with his asceticism and apocalyptical statements and had him named head of the prestigious Iur'ev Monastery in Novgorod. In 1824, however, Fotii again appeared in St. Petersburg, wildly declaiming against the enemies of the faith and the masonic "revolutionaries," both in speeches and in letters to influential people. Golitsyn's enemies, among them Magnitskii and Arakcheev, saw to it that some of his letters reached the impressionable Tsar Alexander, who granted Fotii an audience in 1824. After his talk with the tsar Fotii openly broke with Golitsyn and even pronounced an anathema against him, leading the call for his dismissal. After the accession of Nicholas I the following year Fotii was forcea to cease his prophetic activity and retire to his monastery, where he lived on quietly in strict asceticism until his death in 1838.

26. The Holy Alliance was presented to Europe by Alexander in 1815. Its terms bound its adherents to be guided in their relations with each other and in the government of their respective reahns by the precepts of Christian morality. All the monarchs of Europe, except the Pope, the Sultan and the British king, signed it, but more to humor Alexander than because anyone attached any practical value to it. Only one provision of it had any meaning to its signators, and ultimately to Alexander himself: that existing sovereigns rule by the will of God and therefore any opposition to them is a divergence from Christian teaching. The Holy Alliance thus went down in history as a symbol of extreme reaction in a period of revolutions in Spain, Latin America, France, Italy and Greece.

27. The Elevation of the Holy Cross, celebrated on September 14, is one of the twelve major feastdays of the Orthodox Church. On this day the Orthodox commemorate the discovery in 325 of the Holy Cross by St. Helena, Constantine the Great's mother, and the return of the cross by the Emperor Heraclius in the 7th century after it had been captured by the Persians. The troparion of the feast, "O Lord save thy people" served as a national anthem in Byzantium and in Russia.

28. Established by the decree of October 24, 1817. [Author's note] .

29. Nikolai Nikolaevich Novosiltsev (1761-1836) was a long-time friend and trusted confidant of Alexander. From 41801-1803 he served on a secret committee to plan reforms for the government and the Russian school system, and during the Napoleonic wars he was one of the Tsar's highest diplomats. The "Statutory Charter" was a draft of a constitution commissioned by Alexander in 1818. Novosiltsev's constitution was much more conservative than Speranskii's earlier project, but was consigned to the same oblivion.

30. Joseph de Maistre (1753-1821), a reactionary political ideologist, lived in St. Petersburg from 1803 to 1817 as the ambassador of the King of Sardinia. A Frenchman by birth, he was an active theoretician and organizer of freemasonry in France until he was uprooted by the French revolution. Then his masonic background combined with his hatred of revolutionary terror to produce a peculiar occult Catholic political philosophy fanatically opposed to liberal and Enlightenment ideals. He attained considerable influence in St. Petersburg society, for a time he was a friend and confidant of Alexander I, and perhaps entertained hopes of converting Russia to an ultramontane, authoritarian Catholicism, which he felt was civilization's last hope against the demonic forces of revolution. In 1809 he composed, as a memorandum for.Alexander, Essai sur Ie principe generateur des constitutions politiques et des autres institutions humaines (published in St. Petersburg in 1814), and his most famous work, Les Soirees de St. Petersbourg, a philosophical dialogue in which de Maistre acclaims the public executioner as the guardian of the social order, was also written in Russia. Other well known works of his include Du Pape (1819) and a defense of the Spanish Inquisition, Lettres sur l Inquisition espagnole (1838).

31. Aleksandr Witberg (1787-1855) was a Russian painter and sometime architect. His plan for the grandiose cathedral was enthusiastically accepted and construction commenced in 1817. but Witberg's abrasive character eventually won him exile from the capital and the cathedrai was not finished.

32. Ilarion Alekseevich Chistovich (1828-1893) was a noted writer on Russian ecclesiastical history and a member of the Academy of Sciences. Among his principal works are Rukovodiashchie deiateli dukhovnago prosveshcheniia v Rossii v pervoi polovine tekushchago stoletiia (St. Petersburg, 1894) and Feofan Prokopovich i ego vremia (St. Petersburg, 1868).

33. See, for example, the discussion on this question by Catherine's Legislative Commission of 1767. [Author's note] .

34. Georges Goyau (1869-1939) was a French church historian. His chief works are Histoire religieuse de la France (1922) and Allemagne religieuse (1898-1913). He published a monograph on Joseph de Maistre in 1922.

35. See his letters on education to Count A.K. Razumovskii, the Minister of Education. [Author'snote].

36. The French abbot Carl-Eugene Nicole (1758-1835) came to'Russia in 1810 and six years later established a school in Odessa, the Lycee Richelieu (named for Nicole's patron, the governor-general of Odessa Duke Armand-Emmanuel de Plessis de Richelieu). Nicole directed the school from 1816 until the Jesuits' expulsion from Russia in 1820, and published an asticle on it, "Etablissement du Lycee Richelieu a Odessa" (Paris, 1817).

37. Sent to Russia to teach in the Jesuit boarding school for the nobility opened in St. Petersburg in 1794, Jean-Louis Rozaven de Liesseques (1772-1851) was known as a skillful and persuasive polemist in the aristocratic salons of the capital. After the Jesuits were expelled from St. Petersburg in 1815 he taught theology at the Jesuit Academy in Polotsk, then moved to Rome after the order was expelled from the whole Russian empire in 1820. While in Russia Rozaven wrote G'eglise catholique justifiee contre les attaques d'un ecrivain qui se dit orthodoxe in response to a tract by Sturdza.

38. Nikolai Ivanovich Novikov (1744-1818) was an active publisher, writer, educator and philanthropist in the last third of the l8th century. He had studied at Moscow University and worked on the Legislative Commission, but first gained notice as the publisher of a series of satirical journals in St. Petersburg in the 1770's. At the same time he made important contributions to Russian historical scholarship with his Opyt istoricheskago slovaria o rossiiskikh pisatelei (1772) and the collection Drevnaia rossiiskaia vivliof:ka (1773-1775). He also became a mason, but did not share the mystical inclinations of his companions. In  1779 he moved to Moscow and obtained a ten-year lease of the presses of Moscow University. During this time his Typographical Company published the journals Moskovskie vedomosti (1779-1789), Detskoe chtenie (1785-1789, the first Russian children's magazine) and altogether one third of all books printed iri Russia in that decade, including numerous mystical works translated from wetern writers. Novikov was also active in opening grammar schools for children and various philanthropical enterprises. Arrested in 1792 as part of Catherine's crackdown on the masons, he was freed by Paul in 1796 but was forbidden to pursue his former activities.

39. On Lopukhin see chapter IV, note 110; on Karneev see chapter IV, nate 132; for Koshelev see above, note 12; for Turgenev see below, note 50; on Labzin see chapter IV, note 119.

40. See chapter IV, note 117.

41. He was assisted by A. Vakhrushev. The history was published in 1799-1802. [Author's note] . The Russian work is entitled Istoriia ordena sv. loanna lerusaIimskogo (St. Petersburg, 1799-1801).

42. On the French archbishop and mystic Fenelon see chapter IV, note 112.

43. Johann Konrad Pfenninger (1747-1792), a friend and collaborator of Lavater was a Protestant minister in Zurich known for his apologetical and exegetical writings.

44. Johann Ludwig Ewald (1748-1822) was a German pastor and professor, known for his espousal of supernaturalism, a late l8th century movement in England and Germany which grew as a reaction to deism and rationalism.

45. M.A. Dmitriev in his memoirs about Labzin. [Author's note] .

46. See chapter IV, note 103.

47. Innokentii Smirnov (1784-1819) was an outspoken opponent of the mystical movement represented by Labzin. He had taught at the Trinity Seminary in Moscow, at the St. Petersburg Academy, and served on the chief administration of the schools in the Ministry of Education. Innokentii was also the ecclesiastical censor until he allowed a book critical of Golitsyn to be printed, for which he was "exiled" to a bishopric in Siberia. An important ecclesiastical writer, his Outline of Church History [Nachertanie tserkovnoi istorii] served as a standard textbook until the 1860's.

48. Feofil (d. 1862) was a catechist in the Second Military Academy in St. Petersburg and a leading member of Labzin's lodge "The Dying Sphinx" until 1818, when he was sent to Odessa to teach in the Lycee Richelieu and head the Odessa branch of the Russian Bible Society. After 1824 he was sent to a monastery in Rostov and forced to pursue his calling. Iov, a teacher of religion in the Maritime Academy, had been a theoretical degree mason since 1809 and was a member of Mme. Tatarinova's circle. He joined Labzin's lodge in 1818 but died of a mental disorder that same year.

49. Mikhail Matveevich Kheraskov (1733-1807) was a Russian poet, dramatist, and curator of Moscow University. He became a mason while an administrator of the college in St. Petersburg in 1771, and it was his decision while at Moscow University in 1779 to lease Novikov the press. His best-known poems are Rossiada (1779) and Vladimir Reborn (1785), about the introduction of Christianity in Russia. "How Glorious is our Lord in Zion" ["Kol' slaven nash gospod' vo Sione"] became the hymn of the imperial family and was regularly sung at coronations, weddings and funerals.

50. A prominent government official and Decembrist, Nikolai Ivanovich Turgenev (1789-1871) went abroad in 1824, a year before the Decembrist revolt, and lived in London and Paris for the rest of his life. In Paris in 1847 he published a work containing a history of this period from the Decembrist point of view, La Russie et les Russes.

51. The Aleksandr Nevskii Seminary, the seminary of St. Petersburg, was founded in 1725. With the ecclesiastical school reform of 1798 it was upgraded to the status of an academy.

52. Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772) was a Swedish scientist and engineer who in the 1740's began to have frequent visions and on the basis of them formulated a new philosophical system of Christianity. Swedenborg denied the traditional doctrine of the Holy Trinity, and on the whole his teaching approximated neoPlatonism in the context of l6th and l7th century Protestant mysticism. His works, among them the Biblical commentary Arcana celestia (1749-1756) and the doctrinal work Vera christiana religio (1771) were widely read in his own time and greatly influenced later romantics and psychics. Although  Swedenborg never formed a community himself, his followers organized the New Jerusalem Church in 1787, and it almost immediately became known in Russia.

53. P.D. Lodi heard his Lvov lectures and pointed him out to Speranskii. [Author's note] . On P.D. Lodi see below, note 61.

54. A longtime government official and director of the St. Petersburg library, Modest Andreevich Korf (1800-1872) served under Speranskii for five years in Emperor Nicholas I's private chancellery. His Zhizn' grafa Speranskago was published in St. Petersburg in 1861.

55. A Transylvanian by birth, Fedor (Freidrich-Leopold) Gauenshil'd (d. 1830) came to Russia in 1811 and was a well-known pedagogue and director of the Alexandrian Lycee in St. Petersburg. He left Russia in 1822, and in Dresden published a three volume translation of Karamzin's History. His comments are contained in the article "Mikhail Mikhailovich Speranskii" in Russkaia StarinaMay, 1902, pp. 251-262.

56. Gustav Andreevich Rosenkampf (1762-1832) was an eminent jurist who worked on and headed Alexander's Commission on Laws. He also published several works on Russian legal history, including the first studies of the Kormchaia kniga.

57. Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (1729-1781) occupied an important place in the German Enlightenment and in German literature as a critic and dramatist. He also subscribed to controversial religious views, believing in a future rational religion which was to succeed Judaism and Christianity. Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814) was the successor of Immanuel Kant as the leader of German idealist philosophy and applied Kant's philosophy to religion, producing a doctrine akin to deism and illuminism and based on the principles of morality and duty.

58. The opinion of Pozdeev expressed in a letter to Count A.K. Razumovskii. [Author's note]. Pozdeev (1742-1820) was one of the original founders of freemasonry in Russia and one of the first to advance to Rosicrucianism. Count Razumovskii was Minister of Education at the time.

59. Count Sergei Uvarov (1786-1855) had served in the Russian embassies in Venice and Paris, and later became president of the Academy of Sciences (1818) and Minister of Education (1833). He is best remebered as the formulator of the slogan "Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality" - the so-called "official nationality" of Nicholas I's reign.

60. Aleksandr Ivanovich Turgenev (1785-1846) was a well-traveled nobleman who in 1810 was named head of the Department of Foreign Confessions and a member of the State Council. He had studied at the University of Gottingen, and contributed greatly to Russian historical scholarship by collecting materials on Russian history from foreign archives.

61. Petr Dmitrievich Lodi (1764-1829) was a professor at universities in Lvov and Cracow before coming to St. Petersburg in 1803 to teach philosophy. Mikhail Andreevich Balugianskii (1769-1847), born in Hungary and educated in Austria, was a professor of law and history who came to Russia in 1804 and later became the first rector of St. Petersburg University. Ivan Semenovich Orlai (1771-1829) came to St. Petersburg as a student at the Medical Institute, and worked there for many years before being named head of the Bezborodsko Lycee in Nezhin in 1821 and in 1826 the head of the Lycee Richelieu in Odessa. He published several medical treatises in addition to Latin poems and a history of Carpatho-Russia.

62. Pezarovius (1776-1847) had studied at the University of Jena before coming to Russia to work on the Commission on Laws and in the College of Justice. He founded the journal Russian Invalid in 1813 to raise money to help the victims of the recent war, and by 1821 turned over more than a million rubles to the government committee founded in 1814.

63. On Platon see chapter IV, note 48.

64. Cf. the statute of the Moscow Society of Russian History and Antiquities, opened in 1804. [Author's note]

65. One of the first professors of Moscow University, founded in 1755, Ioann Matias (Johann-Matthias) Shaden was a German who, after graduating from the University of Tiibingen came to Moscow in 1756. He taught various subjects there until his death in 1797, and was one of the most popular and influential professors among the students.

66. A highly influential churchman and theologian during the reign of Nicholas I, Innokentii Borisov (1800-1857) was well-known for his oratorical skills. He graduated from the Kiev Academy and was a professor and inspector of the St. Petersburg Academy until 1830, when he returned to Kiev as rector. In 1836 he was consecrated bishop of Chigirin and served the sees of Vologda and Khar'kov before being named archbishop of Kherson and the Crimea in 1848. Innokentii left several unpublished works, including Poslednie dni zemloi zhizni lisusa Khrista and the collection of dogmatic essays Pamiatnik very. He also translated Filaret's catechism into Polish and was the founder in 1837 of the joumal Voskresnoe chtenie. See below pp. 233-235.

67. Mikhail Petrovich Pogodin (1800-1875) was a conservative Russian historian who taught at Moscow University, edited the journals Moskovskii vestnik and Moskvitianin, and worked in the Ministry of Education. His chief works are Issledovaniia, zamechaniia i lektsii o russkoi istorii ( 7 volumes, Moscow, 1846-1857) and important research on the chronicle of Nestor and other ancient chronicles.

 68. Filaret Gumilevskii, archbishop of Chernigov from 1859 to 1866, was an important Russian hierarch, historian and theologian. Born in 1804, he studied at the Tambov Seminary and at the academy in Moscow, where he became a monk and successively served as professor, inspector, and finally rector. In 1841 he was named to the see of Riazan' and was transferred to Khar'kov in 1848 before becoming archbishop of Chernigov. As a bishop he was known as a competent administrator and patron of education, especially for women; as a teacher he was considered both intelligent and innovative, and as a writer he was respected for his dogmatic treatise Pravoslavnoe dogmaticheskoe bogoslovie (1864), his five volume Istoriia russkoi tserkvi (1847, first published in 1859) and Obzor russkoi dukhovnoi literatury (third edition, St. Petersburg, 1884). Filaret is also important as a collector of historical materials in the dioceses he served. The basic work on him is I. Listovskii, Filaret, arkiepiskop chernigovskii (Chernigov, 1895). See below, pp. 253-254.

69. Anthony Ashley Cooper, third earl of Shaftesbury (1671-1713) was an English politician, neo-Platoruc philosopher, and the author of Characteristicks of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times (1711). Denis Diderot (1713-1784), who visited Russia in 1773 at Catherine II's invitation, was a leading French philosophe and editor of the Encyclopedie. Jean Le Rond d'Alembert (1717-1783) also worked on the Encyclopedie and was an outstanding French scientist. His main works are Opuscules mathematiques (1761-1780) and Melanges de literature, d'histoire, et de philosophie (1753). On Rousseau see chapter IV, note 118.

70. Alexander Pope (1688-1744), poet, satirist, and essayist, was the most prominent literary figure in England in his time and the leader of English neo-Classicism. Among his works are translations of Homer, The Rape of the Lock (1712), The Dunciad (1728), An Essay on Criticism (1711) and An Essay on Man (1733-1734), which was especially popular in Russia.

71. Nachertanie pravil o obrazovanii dukhovnykh uchilishch. [Author's note].

72. The law on that reform was published on March 10, 1806. Of course the notion of academic regions had akeady appeared in the draft proposal by Evgenii. [Author's note] .

73. That is, the internal and external administration. [Author's note].

74. Feofilakt Rusanov (1765-1821) was a graduate of the Aleksandr Nevskii Seminary and taught poetics and rhetoric there besides serving as a catechist in several institutions in St. Petersburg. In 1799 he was made bishop of Kaluga, in 1806 he became a member of the Synod, and in 1809 he was elevated to archbishop of Riazan'. Feofilakt was an active supporter of education in the spirit of the Enlightenment and worked most energetically on the committee to reform ecclesiastical education, but his opposition to Fessler in 1810 won him a reputation as an obscurantist as well as the animosity of Golitsyn and Speranskii. He soon lost his influential position in the Church and in society and was forced to return to his diocese. In 1817 he was transferred to Georgia as exarch and then metropolitan (1819). Feofilakt was an expert in modern languages and produced many translations from French; German, English and Latin.

75. Filaret Drozdov, later metropolitan of Moscow. See note 7.

76. The Moscow Theological Academy was now located at the Holy Trinity Monastery. [Author's note] .

77. Archpriest Gerasim Petrovich Pavskii (1787-1863) was an esteemed professor philologist and Hebraist and a controversial Biblical scholar and translator. A graduate of the St. Petersburg Academy, in 1814 he was named to the chair of Hebrew there. and that same year joined the Russian Bible Society, for which he translated the Psalms and the Gospel of Matthew and edited translations of the Old and New Testaments. He gained prominence in society as a priest at the tsar's court, a member of the ecclesiastical censor's committee, and since 1819 a professor of theology at the University of St. Petersburg. From 1821 to 1839 he worked on the journal Khristianskoe chtenie, and in 1826 he was appointed a tutor to the tsarevich Alexander (the future Alexander II). He was dismissed from this post in 1835 after a controversy over some books he wrote for his lessons, including Khristianskoi uchenie v kratkoi sisteme and Nachertanie tserkovnoi istorii (Filaret's comments on these works and Pavskii's defenseare published in Chteniia v Obshchestve Istorii i Drevnostei  Rossiiskikh, 1870).Then in 1841 another controversy erupted over some Old Testament translations he had done wt,lle a professor at the academy, which his students had lithographed from their notes and distributed without official permission (see below, pp. 249-25 Z). With the accession of Alexander II in 1855 Pavskii was again at the court chapel, and in 1858 he was elected to the Academy of Sciences for his linguistic work. Pavskii's chief work is Filologicheskiia nabliudeniia nad sostavom russkago iazyka [Philological Observations on the Composition of the Russian Language, 1841-1842] which, unlike his Biblical research and translations, was well-received on all sides. His Bibleiskiia drevnosti dlia razumeniia sv. Pisaniia was published only in 1884. Pavskii also compiled a Hebrew grammar. See N.I. Barsov, "Protoierei Gerasim Petrovich Pavskii, Biograficheskii ocherk po novym materialam," in Russkaia Starina, 1880.

78. Irodion Vetrinskii was a professor of history and philosophy for many years at the St. Petersburg Academy, and later directed the gymnasium at Mogilev.

79. The last years of the l8th century witnessed an outburst of missionary zeal in England, when several societies, such as the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge and the Religious Tract Society, were formed. The British and Foreign Bible Society, opened in London in 1804, was the largest, most ambitious, and most successful of these groups. Its purpose was the wider distribution, free of charge and "without note or comment," of the Bible, and from its very beginning it was interdenominational. An immediate success in the British Isles, it quickly grew in foreign affiliates and by 1816 had branches in  over a hundred cities throughout the world. In 1805 two Scottish missionaries associated with the British  Bible Society, John Paterson (1776-1855) and Ebenezer Henderson (1784-1858) set out for India, but unable to obtain passage from the British East India Company they instead devoted themselves to founding Bible societies in Denmark, the Netherlands, Iceland, Sweden and Norway. Paterson then came to Russia in 1812, and was joined by Henderson in 1816. Both worked closely with the Russian Bible Soeiety, and in 1822, after severing his relationship with the parent organization, Paterson became an actual director in the Russian society. Paterson and Henderson were forced to leave Russia after the Bible Society's closing in 1826.

80. Metropolitan Stanistaw was an old instrument of Catherine II in her religious policies in the annexation of Poland. He was named bishop of Mogilev in 1774, and in 1782 was promoted to archbishop and chief pastor of all Roman Catholics in the Russian empire. Elevated to metropolitan in 1789, he lost some influence to the Jesuits during Paul's reign, but rose again under Alexander and it was on his orders that the Jesuits were expelled from St. Petersburg in 1815. He died in 1826.

81. This term was given birth during Catherine II's journey down the Dnieper River in 1790. Her favorite Grigorii Potemkin, the  governor of the southern provinces, was careful to see that everything and everyone Catherine would see from her riverboat would be immaculate and in good order. The Saxon diplomat Helbig suggested satirically that Potemkin had facades constructed and transported along the route, and coined the term "Potemkin village" [Potemkinsche dorfer] to describe them. The term gained regular use in the German vernacular language.

82. Sofiia Sergeevna Meshcherskaia (1775-1848) was one of the earliest and most devoted members of the Russian Bible Society, and in the 1830's she was head of the St. Petersburg Women's Prison Committee. All told she helped translate and publish over 90 titles, and all copies were distributed free or for a nominal charge. Alexander I also contributed funds for this enterprise.

83. These were the so-called Meyer brochures, named after the bookseller who served as correspondent for the British Bible Society in St. Petersburg. [Author's note].

84. Metropolitan Mikhail (1762-1820) had studied at the Trinity Seminary in Moscow, and also attended Moscow University, where he joined Novikov's translation and publishing enterprise and the Friendly Learned Society. He became a priest in Moscow and was well-known for mystically oriented sermons. In 1796 he was named a court priest and in 1802 became bishop of Starai Rus'. Transferred to Chernigov in 1803, he joined the Holy Synod in 1813 and two years before his death became metropolitan of St. Petersburg. Many sermons of his have been published.

85. The Lancaster system used older students to teach younger ones. On these schools see Judith Cohen Zacek, "The Lancastrian School Movement in Russia," Slavonic and East European Review, XLV (July, 1967), pp. 343-367.

86. John Venning (1776-1858) in his youth worked for a Russian trading firm in London. In 1793 he moved to St. Petersburg and became a well-todo merchant there. His interest in prisons came from his brother Walter, one of the founders of the Society for the Improvement of Prison Discipline in London. After the Russian Prison Society was set up Venning traveled to visit prisons and insane asylums in Sweden, Germany, France and England, and had personal contact with Emperors Alexander I and Nicholas I.

87. Nikolai Nikolaevich Bantysh-Kamenskii (1737-1814) was important for his life-long labor of organizing the archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the valuable collections of materials he produced for historians. Bantysh-Kamen- skii had studied at the Kiev and Moscow Academies and also wrote on moral philosophy. He served as vice-president of the Bible Society.

88. Aleksandr Skarlamovich Sturdza (1791-1854) was one of the leaders of a conservative, Orthodox reaction to the western mystical and intellectual influences in Russian society. A Moldavian by birth, he had a long and active diplomatic career, undertaking numerous foreign missions for the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and also worked in Golitsyn's Ministry of Education. A prolific writer on religious and political themes, Sturdza's two most famous works are Considerations sur Ia doctrine et l'esprit de 1'eglise orthodoxe (Stuttgart, 1816), written while Sturdza was in Paris, and Memoire sur l'etat actuel de l'Allemagne (1818). The latter, composed on imperial commission while the author was on a diplomatic mission to Germany, condemned liberalism in education and advocated strict government control of instruction and discipline in the schools.

89. As secretary of the Russian Bible Society Vasilii Mikhailovich Popov (1771- 1842) was closely involved with all its affairs. He was also head of the Department of Public Education in Golitsyn's combined ministry. One of Mme. Tatarinova's most fanatical followers, after 1824 he joined her colony outside of Moscow, and when it was dispersed he was sent to the Zilantov Monastery near Kazan.

90. Ekaterina Filippovna Tatarinova (nee Buxhoden, 1783-1856) was the daughter of a German officer in Russian service. She married a Russian colonel, Ivan Tatarinov, and accompanied him on the Russian army's march into Europe after Napoleon. In 1813, however, she returned to St. Petersburg, separated from her husband and bereaved by the death of her infant son, and lived in the Mikhailovskii palace, where her mother was a nurse for the Tsarevna Mariia. Mme. Tatarinova then devoted herself to charitable work among the poor and a spiritual quest that took her away from her native Lutheran Church and into close relations with the Khlysty and Skoptsy before converting to Orthodoxy in 1817. It was soon apparent that she had her own peculiar interpretation of the Orthodox faith, for she proclaimed herself a prophetess and a clairvoyant and held meetings in her apartments where she led her followers through Scripture readings, hymns, impromptu prophesying and often frenzied dances aimed at spiritual exaltation. Among her disciples were many prominent members of government and society, including Golitsyn and the tsar himself and until 1822 Mme. Tatarinova received a rather large government pension. That year Alexander ordered the closing of all secret societies, but Mme. Tatarinova continued her meetings, protected by her high-placed patrons. After Golitsyn's fall in 1824 however, she was arrested and banished to the Moscow region. There she formed a colony around herself which lasted until 1835, when she was again arrested and incarcerated in a convent. In 1847, aged and enfeebled, she was released and allowed to live in Moscow, where she ended her days in quiet.

91. For the Dukhobors, see chapter IV, note 140; for the Molokans, chapter IV, note 141 ; on the Skoptsy see chapter IV, note 139.

92. Cf. the Dukhonostsy, a Bible sect founded by Kotel'nikov on the Don. [Author's note]. The Dukhonostsy, or "spirit bearers" represent a spill-over of mystical ideas from the aristocratic freemasons to lower classes of society. Evlampy Kotel'nikov, the Don Cossack chieftain, was heavily influenced by I.V. Lopukhin, and through him Jung-Stilling and other western mystics available in Russian translation. His followers were especially attracted to apocalypticism and the idea of the "inner church." Arrested in 1817, Kotel'nikov was brought to St. Petersburg for interrogation in 1824 and gained sympathizers at court. In 1825, however, he was sent to the Schlusselberg prison and the next year to Solovki, where he went insane and died.

93. An admiral in the Russian navy who retired in the early years of Alexander I's reign in protest over the young tsar's liberal tendencies, Aleksandr Semenovich Shishkov (1754-1841) gained notice in intellectual circles in 1803 with the publication of Rassozhdenie o starom i novom slove rossiiskago iazyka. This work, a literary attack on Karamzin's prose style, marked the first exposition of the linguistic views Shishkov propagated for the rest of his life: that the Russian language was one dialect of one great Slavic language which he identified with Church Slavonic; and the Russian literary language should therefore be  purged of foreign words, replacing them with words derived from Church Slavonic. At the same time Shishkov was a famous conservative and patriot, and a patriotic pamphlet he published in 1811 so impressed Alexander that Shishkov was named Secretary of State. Two years later he was named president of the Academy of Sciences, a position he held until his death. Although Shishkov was rather indifferent to the actual teachings of the Orthodox Church, he was a staunch defender of Orthodoxy for his conservative political reasons and was thus indisposed to Golitsyn and especially hostile to the Russian Bible Society for its translation of the Scriptures into contemporary Russian. In 1824 he succeeded Golitsyn as Minister of Education, and his tenure here was marked by strict censorship and control over the universities.

94. In 1811 Shishkov organized his literary and linguistic disciples into the society Beseda liubitelei russkago slov [Gathering of Lovers of Russian Speech]. This group functioned until 1816 and issued its journal Chteniia, twenty times.

95. See chapter IV, note 116.

96. Metropolitan Mikhail Desnitskii, see above, note 84.

97. Jean-Philippe Dutoit (or Dutoit-Membrini, 1721-1793) was a fluent and successful French preacher and a great admirer of Guyon. His two principal works are Philosophie divine (3 vols., 1793) and Philosophie chretienne (4 vols., 1800-1819).

98. These two Catholic priests were representatives of a Bavarian mystical movement close to the ideals of the Herrnhutters called Erweckten. Ignatius Lindel, the leader of the Bavarian Bible Society, came to St. Petersburg in 1819. Some of his sermons were translated into Russian by V.M. Popov, but in less than a year Metropolitan Mikhail Desnitskii had him sent off to Odessa. Johann Evangelista Gossner (1773-1858) was a priest in Munich. Unfrocked by the local Catholic hierarchy in 1817, he moved first to Prussia and then in 1820 to St. Petersburg, at the invitation of the Bible Society. Installed as pastor of a Catholic parish, his sermons soon became well-known in Russian society. His book, Geist des Lebens und der Lehre Jesu, was translated into Russian in 1823-1824 (in its final form also by Popov), and the attempt to publish this book provided the opportunity for Golitsyn's enemies to bring formal accusations against him to the tsar. In the spring of 1824 Gossner was expelled from Russia and returned to Germany, where he converted to the Lutheran Church und served for many years as a pastor in Berlin. He was remembered in his native land for his philanthropical and missionary work, and a popular translation of the New Testament.

99. An ultra-secret and disciplined mystical society, the Illuminati were formed in 1776 by a professor of canon law at the University of Ingelstadt in Germany, Adam Weishaupt (1748-1830). They denied the value not only of established religion, but government and society as well. That, together with their secrecy and their bringing moral casuistry to its extreme limit, caused them severe persecution in Germany. They grew and spread, however, by infiltrating and taking over masonic lodges, where they established their own degrees as advanced ' degrees of freemasonry.

100. Cf. the translation and commentaries by Archbishop Mefodii Smirnov. [Author's note]. Tolkovanie na poslanie apostola Pavla k Rimlianam (first edition 1794, reprinted 1799 and 1814). Mefodii Smirnov (1761-1815) was rector of the Moscow Academy, bishop of Voronezh, then archbishop of Tver'. To him also belongs a history of the Church in the first century, Liber historicus Moscow, 1805).

101. In 1808 the British and Foreign Bible Society sent agents to Greece, where they planned a modern Greek translation of the Bible with Adamantios Koraes (1748-1833). The Patriarch of Constantinople Cyril VI blessed the undertaking, although his successors resisted it for many years.

102. Louis-Issac Lemaistre de Sacy (1613-1684) was imprisoned in the Bastille as a Jansenist from 1616 to 1618. While there he and some fellow educated inmates translated the Bible into French. Le Nouveau Testament traduit en Frangais (popularly known as Le Nouveau Testament de Mons 1667) caused a violent debate over Biblical translation in Paris. De Sacy's La Sainte Bible came out in 1672, and is still popular in France.

103. Filaret Drozdov, later metropolitan of Moscow. See note 7.

104. See above, note 77.

105. Polikarp Gaitannikov was rector of Moscow Academy and archimandrite of the Novospasskii Monastery from 1824-1835. He also translated Patristic works for Khristianskoe chtenie, published as Chrestomatia latina in usum scholarum ecclesiasticarum (Moscow, 1827), and left a Theologia dogmatica in manuscript on his death in 1837.

106. His dates are 1783-1834. Several editions of his sermons have been published.

107. Serafim (Stefan Vasil'evich Glagolevskii, 1757-1843) succeeded Mikhail Desnitskii as metropolitan of St. Petersburg and held that see during the turbulent years of the reaction against Golitsyn and the Bible Society and the Decembrist uprising. Serafim was educated at the Moscow Academy and Moscow Uruversity, where he was a member of Novikov's Freindly Learning Society. He was a professor and rector of Moscow Academy, and held the episcopal sees of Viatka, Smolensk and Minsk before becoming archbishop of Tver' in 1814. That same year he was named a member of the Commission on  Ecclesiastical Schools and became a vice-president of the Bible Society, for which he helped translate the Gospels and the Psalins. In 1819 he was made metropolitan of Moscow and three years later transferred to St. Petersburg. Already 65 years old, his activity was limited and he could not exercise much initiative in the important affairs he was part of at that time. Still, he succeeded Golitsyn as president of the Bible Society in 1824 and persuaded the tsar to finally close it in 1826.

108. In his Notes on the Book of Genesis [Zapiski na knigu bytiia, St. Petersburg, 1816] Filaret provided throughout a Russian translation of the Hebrew text. [Author's note].

109. See above, pp. 157-159.

110. See above, note 93.

111. Innokentii Smirnov (1784-1819). See above, note 47.

112. The Kadetskii korpus, or military academy, was established in 1731 for sons of the nobility. By 1900 there were twenty such military schools with this name, the students usually being officers' sons.

113. Anna Alekseevna Orlova-Chesmenskaia (1785-1848), the granddaughter of Catherine II's one-time favorite Grigorii Orlov, was an extremely wealthy noblewoman. She took on Fotii as her "spiritual father" at the advice of Innokentii Smirnov, and remained close to Fotii the rest of his life. A pious devotee of the Orthodox Church, Orlova donated millions of rubles to various monasteries and churches, which assured her intluence with high-piaced ecclesiastics. She was also close to the tsar's family.

114. Cf. "Dva pis'ma kniazia A. N. Golitsyna k Iur'evskomu arkhimandritu Fotiiu," Chteniia v Moskovskom obshchestve istorii i drevnosti rossiiskikh pri Moskovskom univ,ersitete, 1868, III, 237-239; "Kniaz' A.N. Golitsyn i arkhimandrit Fotii v 1822-1825 gg.," Russkaia Starina, 1882, 275-296.

115. Aleksei Andreevich Arakcheev (1769-1834) was one of Alexander's closest, most trusted, and constant advisors. Alexander first met him when Arakcheev was serving in Paul's private army at Gatchina. When Paul became emperor he was named quartermaster-general and was responsible for developing the artillery and reforming the administration and training of the army. Under Alexander he served as Minister of War and administrator of the military colonies, and the more Alexander turned to mystical interests and travel the more the day-today administration of the empire fell into the hands of this hard-working, efficient, but often ruthlessly brutal assistant. By the 1820's Arakcheev's only rival for the tsar's favor was Golitsyn, and after his fall Arakcheev was unquestionably the second most powerful man in Russia. When Alexander died, however, he retired from government service.

116. Vozzvanie k chelovekam o posledovanii vnutrennemu vlecheniiu Dukha Khristova, a French pietist work, translated into Russian in 1829 and published in St. Petersburg. The translator, I.I. Iastrebtsov, served as executive secretary on the Commission for Ecclesiastical Schools. [Author's note].

117. See above, note 12.

118. Ignatius-Aurelius Fessler (1756-1839), the Lvov professor who came to the chair of eastern languages and philosophy at the St. Petersburg Academy in 1809, had been exiled to Saratov for atheism in 1810. There he worked as superintendent of the Protestant consistories of South Russia until he returned to St. Petersburg in 1820. After his second exile in 1824, he returned in 1833 as head of the Lutheran consistories of all Russia. Fessler left numerous works, including linguistic treatises, plays, novels, and his mystical and theological works.

119. Russian writers frequently referred to all who denied the divinity of Jesus Christ as Socinians, or followers of the anti-trinitarian movement founded by Laelius and Faustus Socinus in Italy in the l6th century. This sect was especially strong in Poland and West Russia.

120. Dmitrii Nikolaevich Sverbeev (1799-1876), a nobleman from the Novgorod region, left interesting memoirs on this period, Zapiski Dmitriia Nikolaevicha Sverbeeva (Moscow, 1899).

121. For example, the Decembrist Baron Ivan Shteingel, referring to the Russian Bible, wrote that "confidence in one of the sacred books read in Church is undermined." [Author'snote].

122. Filaret Amt3teatrov (1779-1857) was head of the Volokalamsk Monastery in St. Petersburg and inspector and rector of the St. Petersburg Academy from 1813. In these years he participated in the activities of the Russian Bible Society. In 1817 he went to the Moscow Academy as rector, and was named to various bishoprics until he became metropolitan of Kiev in 1837. See below, pp. 256-258.

123. Incidentally, the Orthodox Confession underwent a new translation just at that moment. Prince S.A. Shirinskii-Shikhmatov (shortly thereafter Hieromonk Anikita and a close personat friend of Fotii) supervised the work. However, the translation was held up in the religious censorship committee at the recommendation of Fr. Gerasim Pavskii.

124. Kochetov later became the superior at the Sts. Peter and Paul Cathedral. Cf. his essay On the Disastrous effects of partiality for foreign languages [O pagubnykh sledstviiakh pristrastiia k inostrannym iazykam ] ,written in the spirit of Shishkov, who obtained membership for Kochetov in the Russian Academy. [Author'snote].

125. Evgenii Bolkhovitinov. See chapter IV, note 103.

126. Simeon Krylov-Platonov (1777-1824) taught French and poetics at the Moscow Trinity Seminary and rhetoric at the Moscow Academy, where he was later rector. In 1816 he was consecrated bishop of Tula and succeeded to Chernigov (1818), Tver' (1820) and Iaroslavl (1821). He also taught at the St. Petersburg Academy.

127. Mikhail Leont'evich Magnitskii (1778-1855) was an opportunistic government official who came to the forefront of an obscurantist attack on the educational system in Russia. Early in Alexander's reign he served in the Preobrazhenskoi Guards and in the Ministry of Foreign affairs. Active in masonry and in the liberal circle around Speranskii, he shared Speranskii's disgrace and was exiled in 1812 to Vologda. There he worked his way up in the provincial administration and in 1818 became governor of Simbirsk. He then began writing letters attacking the school system and the masonic lodges. In 1819 he was appointed to investigate the University of Kazan', and became famous overnight with a sensational expose of the revolutionary  philosophy and illuminism he claimed was being taught there by the professors of the "Hellish alliance." The next year he was named head of Kazan' University and reformed it according to the principles of the "Holy Alliance," with philosophy his main target. He came back to St. Petersburg and allied himself with Arakcheev, Shishkov and Fotii against Golitsyn and the Bible Society. However, in 1826 Magnitskii was himself accused of belonging to the Illuminati and was exiled to Estonia.

128. Pavlov was an opportunistic former cavalry officer who held and lost several government jobs. In 1823 he ingratiated himself with the Over Procurator Prince Meshcherskii, and after receiving an appointment in his office quickly joined forces with Arakcheev and Fotii. The next year he was also given a place in theCommission on Ecclesiastical Schools. In 1827  however, Nicholas I ordered him into retirement.

129. During the Napoleonic wars many young noble officers received a first hand look at western Europe. They returned with new political and social ideas and a desire to bring Russia to the fore of European civilization by the implementation of these ideas. Encouraged by the early liberalism of Alexander's reign several young Guards officers in 1816 formed the Union of Salvation (Soiuz spaseniia ] , whose general aim was to brihg about, by revolutionary means if necessary, constitutional government and an end to serfdom in Russia. This society was reorganized in 1817 into the Union of Welfare [Soiuz blagodenstviia] , but was dissolved in 1820 for fear of government reprisals. The members of this group, for the most part Imperial Guards officers of high social standing, trained in secret organization and conspiratorial techniques by the association of many of them with masonic lodges, then formed two underground societies. In St. Petersburg they were led by Nikita Murav'ev, Prince E. Obolenskii, Prince Sergei Trubetskoi, and later the poet K. Ryleev; the southern organization gathered around Pavel Pestel. The movement gained sympathizers and plans were discussed for a revolutionary takeover of the  government. When Alexander I suddenly died on November 19, 1825, the conspirators decided to act. At that time the government was in a state of confusion. The next in line for the throne was presumably Alexander's brother Constantine. However, he had married a Polish countess and secretly renounced his rights to the succession, and in an unpublished manifesto of 1823 the next brother, Nicholas, was named heir apparent. In the confusing weeks after Alexander's death, however, Nicholas was unsure of his support, and for fear of appearing as a usurper he bade all his associates to proclaim their loyalty to the new emperor Constantine. Meanwhile in Warsaw Constantine was swearing allegiance to Nicholas. The latter finally accepted the throne on December 14 and the populace was duly ordered to take the traditional oath to the new sovereign. That day around 3,000 soldiers, led by the St. Petersburg conspirators, gathered on the Senate square and refused to take the oath, shouting out their demands for "Constantine . . ." who had an unfounded reputation of benevolency and liberalism, " . . . and a Constitution." They expected the rest of the military to join them, but instead after pleas from Metropolitan Serafim and the Grand Duke Michael to disperse, were fired on by troops loyal to Nicholas and quickly arrested. Within three weeks the southern members of the conspiracy were rounded up. A special commission was established to try the "Decembrists," and five were hanged 31 exiled permanently to Siberia, and another 85 were given lesser terms of exile.

130. Nicholas (1796-1855), the third son of Paul, became tsar in 1825 during the Decembrist revolt. A lover of barracks discipline and a believer in strong autocratic authoritarianism, he took personal direction over the governmerit to a degree not seen in Russia since Peter the Great. His reign witnessed a great expansion of the government bureaucracy, repression of dissenters and increased censorship, and the growth of the Imperial Chancellery, formerly a relatively insignificant department, into a huge structure with four comprehensive sections. Important matters of state were transferred from the various ministeries to this chancellery, increasing Nicholas' personal supervision over his empire. The thira section of the chancellery, the political police, became a famous instrument of repression. Both the schools and the Church were used to foster the ideal of "Official Nationality," summed up in Uvarov's phrase "Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality." In foreign affairs Russian interests toward the south continued, and Nicholas reversed Alexander's policy of non-intervention in the Greek revolution by going to war with Turkey and forcing the Sultan, in the 1829 Treaty of Adrianople, to recognize self-government in Greece. Russia's expansionist policy, however, placed it on a collision course with the interests of England and France, resulting in the Crimean War, still raging when Nicholas died in 1855.

131. See chapter IV, note 48.

132. David Hollatius (or Hollaz 1648-1713) was a Lutheran minister and theologian. His Examen theologicum acroamaticum (Rostock and Leipzig, 1717) was the last gteat textbook of Lutheran otthodoxy before the coming of pietism. Hollatius also wrote Scrutinium veritatis in mysticorum dogmata (Wittenberg, 1711).

133. Anastasii Bratanovskii-Romanenko (1761-1806) was bishop of Mogilev and from 1805 archbishop of Astrakhan. He was a member of the Russian Academy and worked on the 1808 reorganization of the ecclesiastical schools.

134. Jean-Baptiste Massillon (1663-1742), French pedagogue and bishop, was known as "the Racine of the pulpit." Louis Bourdaloue (1632-1704), the "king of orators and the orator of kings," was a Jesuit theologian whose sermons were considered models of classical homiletics. Both preached at the court of Louis XIV. On Fenelon see chapter IV, note 112.

135. Grigorii Postnikov (d. 1860) succeeded Filaret as rector of the St. Peters- E burg Academy in 1819, and two years later founded the journal Khristianskoe 1 chtenie there. He was also known as the author of Istinno-drevniaia i istinno- pravoslavnaia Khristova tserkov (1855) written against the Old Believers. In 1855  he became metropolitan of St. Petersburg. See below, pp. 220-222.

136. Herzen's Byloe i Dumy (English translation My Past and TPvoughts: Memoirs, 6 volumes, New York, 1924-1928) contains many valuable comments on events and personalities of this time.

137. On Johann Franz Buddeus see chapter IV, note 9.

138. Die Seherin von Prevorst (1829). This novel was centered on themes of hypnotism and somnambulance. Its author, Justinus Kerner (1786-1862), was a German lyrical poet of the Romantic Swabian school. Besides his deeply melancholic poems he authored Reiseschatten (1811) and Bilderbuch aus meiner " knabenzeit (1849).

139. This committee was formed by Nicholas I to investigate the causes of the recent Decembrist uprising and possible reforms of the government in the light of them. It was chaired by Prince V.P. Kochubei and included Golitsyn and Count P.A. Tolstoi. Its recommendations on provincial administration were adopted in 1837.

140. Evgenii Bolkhovitinov. See chapter IV, note 103.

141. Karl Karlovich Merder (1788-1834), known as a humane and sensitive man, transmitted these qualities to Alexander Nikolaevich while tutoring him from 1824 until his death.

142. Feofilakt Gorskil, Doctrina (first published in Leipzig in 1784). See chaptet IV, note 61.

143. Kirill Bogoslovskii-Platonov (1788-1840) studied at the St. Petersburg s Academy, was a professor and rector of the Moscow Academy, and bishop, of Viatka and later Podolia. See below, pp. 222-223.

144. Moisei Antipov-Platonov (1783-1834) had earlier taught in the St. Petersburg Academy, and eventually became exarch of Georgia. He translated the Gospel of Luke into contemporary Russian for the Bible Society.

 145. Meletii Leontovich (d. 1840), a graduate of the St. Petersburg Academy, was named a professor and inspector of the Kiev Academy in 1817. Two years later he succeeded Moisei as rector, and subsequently became archbishop of Khar'kov.

146. Fedor Bukharev (1824-1871) was a student at Moscow Academy and from 1846 a fiery and passionate lecturer on Holy Scripture there. He quickly gained note for his letters to the author Nikolai Gogol, with whom he  became acquainted and supported in his sudden turn to conservative, traditional Orthodoxy. The Tri pis'ma k N. V. Gogoliu were written in 1848 but met with Metropolitan Filaret's disapproval and were not published until 1861. An archimandrite by 1854, he was sent that year to the Kazan' Academy because of his controversial views on religion in society, expressed in his pravoslavii v otnoshenii k sovremennosti (first published in St. Petersburg, 1861). Bukharev possessed the idealist philosophical tendencies that gained current in Russia in the 1820's, but interpreted them in terms of Christianity and with the basic optimism of the mystics of the beginning of the century. He remained only a year in Kazan', being called to St. Petersburg to serve on a newly organized censorship committee. Here he soon became involved in a tragic controversy. One of the works that came to him as a censor was the first issue of V. I. Askochenskii's Domashniaia Beseda (see below, note 262). Because of its gloomy and skeptical character, particularly in relation to the institutions of the Church, Bukharev denied the publication. This infuriated Askochenskii, who launched violent protests at the St. Petersburg Academy, and when the journal was fmally allowed in print in 1858 it included a denunciatory review of Bukharev's O pravoslavii in which he was accused of vile heresy. He defended himself in an article in Syn otechestva, but Askochenskii pressed on with protests against his commentaries on Revelations then being prepared for publication. This brought an investigation into the commentaries, which Bukharev, who had retired to the monastery of St. Nikitin in 1862, considered the fundamental work of his life. When the authorities in 1863 decided not to publish it he abandoned his vows and married. The rest of his life was spent in poverty, but Bukharev continued to publish works on Old Testament exegesis and add to his treatise on Revelations.

147. The Jacobins were a faction in the French revolution particularly influenced by the Enlightenment. To accuse someone of "Jacobinism" was to derogate their learning by associating it with excessive rationalism and revolutionary ideas.

148. As Over Procurator of the Holy Synod for twenty years, Count Nikolai Aleksandrovich Pratasov (1799-1855) brought government control over the Church to its height. Pratasov was a retired cavalty officer who went to work for the Ministry of Education and the chief censorship commission in 1834. He quickly acquired great influence over secular education and in 1836 obtained his power in the Church as well, transforming it into an actual department of the state. See below, pp. 239 ff.

149. Nikanor Brovkovich (1827-1890) was a distinguished ecclesiastic and philosopher of a later generation. Educated at the St. Petersburg Academy he taught there and served as rector of several seminaries, in addition to the Kazan' Academy. Later in life he became archbishop of Kherson and Odessa. He is known for several polemical articles written against the views of the novelist Tolstoi, and his main philosophical work, influenced by Plato and Leibniz, Pozitivnaia filosof:ia i sverkhchuvstvennoe bytie [St. Petersburg, 1875-1888).

150. Dmitrii Ivanovich Rostislavov (1809-1877), a son of a priest, taught mathematics and physics for many years at the St. Petersburg Academy and participated in the free public lecture series organized by Russian professors in Riazan' in the 1850's and 1860's. He wrote several articles on the contemporary state of Church affairs, especially religious education which caused a sensation becauseof their Protestant bias and sharply critical tone. Among them  are O dukhovnykh uchilishchakh, written on official commission but so controversial it could only be published in Leipzig in 1860, Chernoe i beloe dukhovenstvo v Rossii (1865-1866), and Opyt izsledovaniia ob imushchestvakh i dokhodakh nashykh monastyrei (St. Petersburg, 1876), an attack on the wealth of monasteries. He also contributed to various journals and left interesting Zapiski [Notes], published after his death in Russkaia Starina from 1880 to 1895.

151. The famous historian Sergei Mikhailovich Solov'ev (1820-1879) taught Russian history at the University of Moscow for the last 23 years of Filaret's life, when he was already permanently settled in Moscow. The title of his autobiography is Moi zapiskii dlia detei moikh, a, esli mozhno, i dlia drugikh (St. Petersburg, no date).

152. It seems that Dostoevskii had Eliseev in mind when he created the remarkable character Rakitin. [Author's note]. Grigorii Zakharovich Eliseev (1821-1891) taught Russian Church history and other subjects at the  Kazan' Academy until 1854. That year he left the faculty and went to live in Siberia, working for the provincial government. In 1858 he moved to St. Petersburg and began his journalistic activity, at first in association with Chernyshevskii and Dobroliubov, and in his own right he became a leader of the Populist movement [Narodnichestvo ] .

153. Aleksei Stepanovich Khomiakov (1804-1860) is the best known of the Slavophile leaders to the West. Solov'ev, on the other hand, was a moderate "Westernizer." Khomiakov lived most of his life in Moscow with no official responsibilities, devoting his time to writing and discussion groups. He is regarded by many Orthodox as a great lay theologian. See A. Gratieux's A.S. Khomiakov and the Slavophile Movement, translated from the French by Elizabeth Meyendorff (two volumes, Nordland).

154. The expounder of "pectoral theology" Johann August Wilhelm Neander (1789-1850) was born David Mendel, a Jew. He converted to Protestant Christianity while a student in Halle, and taught at the University of Heidelberg and Berlin. A theologian of the pietist tradition, he also gained renown as a Church historian, publishing a six volume Church history (1826-1852) and works on Julian the Apostate and John Chrysostom, among others.

155. See above, note 118.

156. See above, note 143.

157. The followers of Paisii Velichkovskii (1722-1794); see above, chapter IV, section VII, "The Reawakening of Russian Monasticism."

158. See above, note 24.

159. Moisei Antipov-Platonov, see note 106; Meletii Leontovich, see note 145.

160. William Palmer (1811-1879), an Anglican High Churchman, had taught Notes to Chapter V 367 at Oxford. He became interested in the Orthodox Church and was particularly active in promoting inter-communion with it, and for that reason made two journeys to Russia, in 1840 and 1842. Subsequently he turned severely critical of the Anglican Church and in 1855 converted to Roman Catholicism and moved to Rome to study and write on archeology. Among his written works are Harmony of Anglican Doctrine with the Doctrine of the Eastern Church (1846), Notes on a Visit to the Russian Church (first published in 1882), and the six volume The Patriarch and the Tsar (1871-1876), a collection of materials on Nikon and Aleksei Mikhailovich.

161. On Mme. Tatarinova's "Spiritual alliance" see above, note 90.

162. For Johann Arndt see chapter IV, note 80.

163. Iov (1750-1823), a second cousin of Catherine the Great's favorite Grigorii Potemkin, lived for several years after his tonsure in Iasi and was abbot of the Assumption Monastery in Bessarabia. In 1793 he was consecrated a vicar to the bishop of Ekaterinoslavl, became archbishop of Minsk and Volynia (where he is remembered for extensive church construction and efficient administration of the diocese) in 1796, and in 1812 returned to Ekaterinoslavl as archbishop.

164. Filaret (1773-1841) was hegumen of the Glinskii-Bogorodichnyi pustyn in the Ural region, and was largely responsible for its spiritual rejuvenation. He composed rules for convents and published in 1824 a Prostrannoe pouchenie k novopostrizhennomu monakhu. There is a biography of him, Zhitie blazhennoi pamiati startsa, vozobnovitelia Clinskoi pustyni, igumena Pilareta (St. Petersburg, 1860).

165. Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) began his career as a mathematician and physical scientist, and made lasting contributions to those fields. Later in life, however, he concentrated on religious-philosophical writing, particularly in defense of the Jansenists, whose harsh and ascetical doctrine resembled Calvinism to a degree (they were condemned in the papal bull Unigenitus in 1705). Pascal's Lettres provinciales and Pensees were influential on such later western thinkers as Rousseau, Henri Bergson, and the Existentialists.

166. Grellet and Allen were on a missionary journey for the Society of Friends that took them in 1818-1820 to Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia, Constantinople, and the Greek Islands. William Allen (1770-1843) was a chemist by pro fession and participated in the philanthropical societies popular in England in his time. When Alexander came to London in 1814 Allen was introduced to him as a "model Quaker." He met Alexander during this trip as well, and again in Vienna in 1822. Stephen Grellet, born Etienne de Grellet du Mabillier in France in 1773, had an adventurous youth. He was arrested and condemned to death following the French revolution but managed to escape and sail to South America. In 1795 he moved to New York and started a business, joined the Society of Frends, then moved to Philadelphia and became a Quaker minister. He made several missionary trips through North America and Europe, and also met Alexander in 1814 in England. Grellet died in 1855 in New Jersey.

167. The flood of 1824 is immortalized in Pushkin's The Bronze Horseman. The cholera epidemic began in the Caucasus in the 1820's, by 1830 raged in central Russia, and spread to St. Petersburg and Poland in 1831. Over 100,000 lives were claimed, largely due to administrative incompetence in dealing with the epidemic. See Roderick E. McGrew, Russia and the Cholera, 1823-1832 (University of Wisconsin Press, 1965).

168. Filaret Gumilevskii, archbishop of Chernigov. See above, note 68.

169. This cave was in a monastery in Bethlehem where St. Jerome (c. 340-420) produced the Vulgate.

170. Smaragd (Aleksandr Kryzhanovskii, d. 1863) was archbishop of Riazan'. He carried on an extensive and detailed correspondence with, among others, Innokentii Borisov and I.F. Glushkov. These letters contain many valuable observations on his contemporaxies and his times.

171. Ernst-Friedrich Karl Rosenmueller (1768-1835) was a German Lutheran Hebraist and professor of Oriental languages at the University of Leipzig. His main works are Scholia in Vetus Testamentum (Leipzig, 1788-1835), Handbuch der biblishchen Altertumskunde (Leipzig, 1823-1831) and Analecta arabica (Leipzig, 1825-1828).

172. See above, note 150.

173. For de Sacy see above, note 102; for Fenelon see chapter IV, note 112; for St. Francis de Sales see this chapter, note 15; on John Mason see chapter IV, note 122.

174. On Johann Arndt, see chapter IV, note 80. On Thomas a Kempis see above, note 17. Anthony Hornbeck (1641-1697) was a German who moved to England and became an Anglican pastos, and left popular devotional writings.

175. See chapter IV, note 72.

176. Fedor Aleksandrovich Golubinskii (1797-1854) studied at the Kostroma Seminary and Moscow Academy, where he became a highly popular professor of philosophy for many years. He stood at the center of a circle devoted to theistic philosophical discussions. Although he published almost nothing himself, his students printed his Lectures from their notes beginning in 1868.

177. On Mikhail Desnitskii see above, note 84; for Evgraf see p. 202; for Innokentii Smirnov see note 47.

178. Ioakim Semenovich Kochetov (1789-1854) was a professor at the St. Petersburg Academy from 1814 to 1851, dean of the Cathedral of Sts. Peter and Paul and also taught at the Alexandrian lycee. In 1823 he published the first work on moral theology in Russian, Cherty deiatel nago ucheniia very, which went through five editions, and later published the textbook Nachertanie khristianskikh obiazannostei. A member of the Academy of Sciences since 1841, he contributed greatly to its Church Slavonic-Russian dictionary, serving as final editor of several volumes.

179. Christian Weismann (1677-1747) was a pietist professor at Stuttgart and Tubingen. His principal history was Introductio in memorabilia ecclesiastica historiae sacrae Novi Testamenti, maxime vero saeclorum primorum et novissimorum (2 vols., Stuttgart, 1718-1719). Friedrich Spanheim (1632-1701) taughf theology at Heidelberg and Leiden. His Summa historiae ecclesiasticae appeared in 1689. Caesar Baronius (1538-1607) was a Catholic Church historian and casdinal. His Annale.s ecclesiastici (1588-1607) was a response to the Magdeburg Centuries. The Centuriae Magdeburgenses, printed between 1559 and 1574, was the first gieat Protestant Church history. Chiefly the work of Matthias Flacius Illyricus, it contained a sharp Lutheran bias, but was important for the introduction of advanced methods of scholarship.

180. For biographical data on Filaret Amfiteatrov see above, note 122.

181. See chapter IV, note 61.

182. Campegius .Vitringa (1659-1722) was a Dutch Reformed Old Testament scholar and Church historian. His chief work is a two-volume commentary on Isaiah (1714-1720), which was highly influential among later Protestant commentators.

183. See above, chapter IV, note 147.

184. On Filaret, see above, note 68. Aleksandr Vasil'evich Gorskii (1812-1875) was an archpriest and rector of Moscow Academy. Although he never became a monk he lived in a monastic style and was known as much for his piety as for his erudition. His course at the academy, Istoriia evangel'skaia i tserkvi aposto1'skoi, as well as his other learned works, he did not publish out of modesty. Gorskii also compiled, at the suggestion of Filaret, an Opisanie slavianskikh rukopisei Moskovskoi Sinodal'noi Biblioteki, which served as an important guide for historians.

185. See above, note 146.

186. Alexander II (1818-1881) took over the throne during the Crimean War in 1855. After extricating Russia from that disaster he proceeded to promulgate the "Great Reforms" (see note 253). Alexander sponsored these reforms more because he recognized the necessity for them than because he was any less autocratic in spirit than his father Nicholas I. After 1866 he was decidedly more conservative, especially in his nominations to important government posts, while at the same time the views of the dissenting groups in Russia, increasingly more radical, hardened. Finally Alexander was assisinated by a member of the terrorist organization The People's Will.

187. The Hebraische Grammatik of Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Gesenius (1786-1842) was first printed in Halle in 1813 and went through 13 editions in the author's lifetime. A long-time professor of Oriental languages at Halle University, he also published a Hebraisches und Chaldaisches Handworterbuch (Leipzig, 1810-1812) and Thesaurus philologico-criticus linguae Hebraeae et Chaldaeae Veteris Testamenti (Leipzig, 1829-1858).

188. Dmitrii Pavlovich Runich (1780-1860) was curator of the St. Petersburg school district from 1821 to 1826. A collaborator in Magnitskii's obscurantist designs on education (see above, note 127) he conducted a purge of western oriented professors at the University of St. Petersburg. On ascending the throne Nicholas quickly replaced him. Runich was also a mason and held an interesting correspondence with Novikov, Lopukhin, V.M. Popov, and others, published in Russkii Arkhiv, 1870-1871.

189. Glaube, Liebe und Hoffnung was a catechetical work published in 1813 by Johann Heinrich Bernard Draeseke (1774-1849). He was bishop of Saxony from 1832 and particularly noted as a preacher espousing a humanistic Christianity and attempting to reconcile rationalism and pietism. 190. Peter Bartenev (1829-1873) was a student at Moscow University and a member of its faculty in the historical-philological division. He made a great contribution to Russian historical scholarship through a number of collections of historical documents, and was the founder in 1863 of the journal Russkii Arkhiv.

191. On Zhukovskii see chapter IV, note 114; for General MerdeI see above, note 141.

192. Marianus Dobmayer was a Bavarian theologian, particularly influenced by the ideas of Schelling. His dates are 1753-1805.

193. Johann Ernst Schubert (1717-1774) was a German theologian. Among uis many doctrinal works are Compendium theologiae dogmaticae (Helmstedt and Halle, 1760) and Institutiones theologiae dogmaticae (Leipzig, 1749). He also wrote a textbook on moral theology that was translated into Russian by Iakov Arsen'ev (see below).

194. See above, note 138.

195. See chapter IV, note 43.

196. By the 1860's Makarii (1816-1882) was one of the most respected and influential ecclesiastical figures and theologians in Russia. Born Mikhail Petrovich Bulgakov, he attended the Kiev Academy, became a monk there and taught Russian Church and civil history. In 1842 he transferred to the St. Petersburg r'scademy as a professor of theology and later became rector. During this period his main historical and theological works appeared: the first volume of his massive Istoriia russkoi tserkvi came out in 1846-1847, his doctoral dissertation vvedenie v bogoslovie was published in 1847, the first part of the five volume Dogoslovie dogmaticheskoe was issued in 1849, and in 1854 Makarii published his Istorila russkago raskola staroobriadstva.  Besides these he wrote a large number of lesser works, was a regular contributor to several journals and from 1854 a member of the Academy of Sciences. In 1857 he became bishop of Tambov and succeeded to Khar'kov and Litovsk, finally becoming metropolitan of Moscow in 1879. See F. Titov, Makarii Bulgakov, mitropolit moskovskii (Kiev, 18:5). Makarii's theological work is discussed below, pp. 255-261.

197. Ivan Mikhailovich Skvortsov (1795-1863) taught at the St. Petersburg Academy, and later was professor of philosophy at the Kiev Academy and piofessor of theology at Moscow University. He published two well-known works on canon law, Zapiski po tserkwnomu zakonovedeniiu (4th ed., Kiev, 1871-1874) and O vidakh i stepeniakh rodstva (Kiev, 1864), as well as the popular Katekhizicheskiia poucheniia (Kiev, 1854). His correspondence with Innokentii Borisov was published by N.I. Barsov in Trudy Kievskoi Akademii, 1882-1883.

198. See note 134.

199. Amvrosii Podobedov (1742-1818), at one time a preacher and prefect at the Moscow Academy and head of the Novospasskii Monastery, rose through the episcopal ranks during Catherine II's reign, becoming metropolitan of Novgorod and St. Petersburg in 1791. He is also the compiler of Sobranie pouchitel'nykh slov (Moscow, 1810) and did important work with Russian Church music.

200. Carl Gottlieb Hofmann (1703-1777) was a German preacher and professor of theology at Wittenberg. His basic exegetical works are Introductio in lectionem Novi Testamenti and Institutiones theologiae exegeticae in usum academicarum praelectionum adornatae.

201. A student of Michaelis and Buddeus, John Jacob Rambach (1693-1735) taught at the University of Halle. In his theology' he combined the premises of pietism with the methods of Wolffian philosophy. His best known work is his Betrachtungen on the life and death of Christ, published in the collection Betrachtungen uber das ganze Leiden Christi und die sieben letzen Worte des gekreuzigten Jesu (Basel, 1865). Rambach was also a popular poet and hymnographer.

202. Ioann Dobrozrakov (1790-1872) taught oratory and theology in St. Petersburg, and also served as the academy's librarian. A member of the censorship committee since 1824, he became rector of the academy two years later. In 1830 he began his episcopal career in Penza, was moved to Nizhnii-Novgorod in 1835, and in 1847 succeeded to archbishop of the Don and Novocherkassk.

203. See note 192.

204. Bruno Franz Leopold Liebermann (1759-1844), a Jesuit, was head of the theological school at Mainz. His Institutiones theologiae is an anti-rationalist approach to Roman Catholic theology.

205. A student of Rambach's, Heinrich Klee (1800-1840) taught Church history, philosophy and theology. He is remembered for Die Beichte (Mainz, 1827), Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichte (2 vols., Mainz, 1837-1838) and Katholische Dogmatik (3 vols, Mainz, 1835).

206. Friedrich Brenner (1784-1848) was a German Catholic theologian and apologist. His chief dogmatic works are Katholische Dogmatik (1828-1829) and Generelle dogmatik oder; Fundamentirung der katholischen speculativen theologie (1844).

207. The Russian title is Bogosloviia nravstvennaia ili khristianskiia nastavleniia, v kotorykh iasno i tverdo dokazany dolzhnosti khristianina, v obshchestvennom ili grazhdanskom, v domashnem i1i tserkovnom sostoianii nakhodiashchagosia (Moscow, 1804). Iakov Arsen'evich Arsen'ev (1768-1848) taught Latin, rhetoric and philosophy at the Kostroma Semiriary, and for many years was archpriest of the Usspenskii [Assumption] cathedral of Kostroma.

208. Parfenii Sopkovskii (1716-1795) taught rhetoric at the seminary in Novgorod and was later prefect and rector there. In 1759 he was named a vicar to the Novgorod bishop and from 1761 served as bishop of Smolensk and member of the Synod.

209. Leitfaden zu Vorlisungen uber die Pastoral-theologie (1782). Franz Giftschutz (1748-1788) was a professor of theology at the University of Vienna.

210. Primarily a linguist, Ivan Ivanovich Dmitrevskii was a student at the Moscow Academy and taught there until 1805. He also served as a translator for the Holy Synod, and published translations of St. Clement (1781) and the philsoopher Isocrates (17891.

211. Stepan Dmitrievich Nechaev (1792-1860) was formerly the director of the Tula school district and served in Nicholas I's Imperial Chancellery. Later he became a senator. He carried on a valuable correspondence with Filaret of Moscow, published as Perepiska mitropolita moskovskago Filareta s S.D. Nechaevym (St. Petersburg, 1895).

212. Jean Baptiste Henri Lacordaire (1802-1861) was a famous preacher in France and helped restore the Dominican Order there. As a young law student he possessed extreme liberal and atheistic views, but then abandoned a promising law career when he returned to the Catholic Church and became a priest. He was one of the main figures in Lamennais' movement to rebuild the influence of the Catholic Church in France by adopting liberal social and political views.

213. A revised statute for the universities was issued on July 26, 1835. According to it much of the power and responsibilities of the university councils was transfered to the district curator, an appointee of the Minister of Education. The year before that private schools and even tutors were drawn into the Ministry of Education's domain, thus establishing a firm, structured network of government supervised education.

214. Nikodim Kazantsev (1803-1874), a student at Moscow Academy, was a professor and inspector there and served as rector of several seminaries. Later he became bishop of Enisei. His memoirs of Filaret, O Filarete, mitropolite moskovskom, moia pamiat', were published in Chteniia v Moskovskom Obshchestve Istorii i Drevnostei Rossiiskikh, 1877.

215. Aleksandr Ivanovich Karasevskii (1796-1856) began his government career in the Ministry of War. He joined the Commission on Ecclesiastical Schools in 1832, an when it became a department of the Holy Synod in 1839 he was its first director. During the reign of Alexander II he continued to work in educational administration and was especially active in opening schools for women.

216. Count Pavel Dmitrievich Kiselev (1788-1872), a renowned general and statesman, was the chief administrator of the Russian forces occupying Moldavia and Wallachia from 1829 to 1834. From 1837 to 1856 he was Minister of State Properties, and introduced vast reforms concerning the state peasants that served as a prelude to the great reforms of Alexander II's reign. After 1856 Kiselev served as Russian ambassador in Paris.

217. It will be recalled that the Spiritual Regulation and other documents related to the establishment of the Synodal system under Peter the Great were written in a didactic style, at once justifying and explaining the new order while outlining the proper duties of the Christian citizen to his Church and to his statc. See above, chapter IV, section II.

218. The Orthodox Church believes that communicants partake of the real body and blood of Christ, but traditionally her theologians were never concerned as to how the transformation of the bread and wine is accomplished in the liturgy. The term "transubstantiation" and the distinction of "form" and "matter" it implies were borrowed by early Russian theologians from scholastic sources.

219. A graduate of the Jesuit Academy in Polotsk, Konstantin Stepanovich Serbinovich (1797-1874) for a long time was editor of the Journal of the Ministry of Education. He also headed Pratasov's chancellery from 1856-1859. Serbinovich was close to Karamzin, A.I. Turgenev and Shishkov and left interesting notes on them as well as correspondence.

220. The Zapovedi tserkovnyia are nine (sometimes ten) rules regarding the Church life of the believer. They deal with prayer, keeping the fasts, participation in the Sacraments, obedience to one's priest, avoiding the writings and company of heretics, etc.

221. Makarii Bulgakov. See note 196 and below.

222. The Kormchaia kniga was first published in 1650. See chapter III, note 23.

223. Aleksandr Petrovich Kunitsyn (1783-1841) was a professor at St. Petersburg University and worked on the Commission on Laws for Alexander and in Nicholas I's Imperial Chancellery. Influenced in his teaching by Kant and Rousseau, his Pravo estestvennoe (St. Petersburg, 1818) caused a controversy that forced him to leave the university. Kunitsyn was also the author of Istoricheskoe izobrazhenie drevniago sudoproizvodstva v Rossii (St. Petersburg, 1843).

224. Avgustin Sakharov (1768-1841) taught homiletics and Greek at the St. Petersburg Academy, and later was rector of seminaries in Iaroslavl and Riazan'. He became bishop of Orenburg in 1806, but retired to the Varrutskii Monastery in Iaroslavl in 1818. There he compiled his 15 volume Polnoe sobranie dukhovnykh zakonov.

225. The Dukhovnyi reglament was the' document by which Peter the Great's Church reform was executed. See above, chapter IV, section II.

226. In his long career Afanasii (1800-1876) taught at the Moscow Academy and served as rector of seminaries in Penza, Kostroma, Riazan', and Kherson before becoming rector of the St. Petersburg Academy in 1841. The next year he began his episcopal career as a vicar to the bishop of Podolia transferred to Saratov in 1847 and eventually became archbishop of Astrakhan, retiring in 1870.

227. Evsevii (1808-1883) was a well-known ecclesiastical writer who served as rector of both the Moscow and St. Petersburg Academies. He also served as bishop of Samara, Irkutsk and Mogilev. Among his works are Uteshenie v skorbi i bolezni (1879), Razmyshleniia na molitvu Gospodniu (1871), and Besedy na voskresnyia i prazdnichnyia Evangeliia (1876).

228. See above, note 149.

229. Photius was patriarch of Constantinople from 858-867 and 878-886. An important figure in the history of the schism between the Eastern and Western Churches, he was the first to attack the ftlioque on theological grounds and was heavily involved in theological polemics as well as ecclesiastical-political intrigues. Photius was the most learned scholar of 9th century Byzantium, and in many ways represents the end of the great Patristic era. The most recent study of Photius is Richard S. Haugh's Photius and the Carolingians (Nordland, 1975).

230. Bruno Bauer (1809-1882) was a German Protestant Biblical critic and historian. In his two major works, Kritik der evangelischen Geschichte des Johannes (1840) and Kritik der evangelischen Geschichte der Synoptiker (2 vols., 1841- 1882) he denied the historicity of Jesus Christ and questioned the foundations of traditional Christian doatrine. Bauer's works were intluential on Nietzsche and Marx. David Strauss (1808-1874) was a theologian of the Tubingen school, which interepreted the Gospels in mythological terms and was strongly influenced by Hegel. His chief work is Das Geben Jesu kritisch bearbeitet (1835-1836). The works of these two scholars produced intense debates on the "historical Jesus " ultimately leading to the "liberal" school represented by Adolph Harnack and the "eschatological" school of Albert Schweitzer.

231. The Essenes were members of a Jewish sect that flourished in Palestine from the second century B.C. to the end of the first century A.D. Although practices among different groups varied, they generally excluded women, scrupulously observed the Mosaic law and rejected worship in the temple in Jerusalem, resembling in their teaching the many dualistic mystery religions of the time. The Dead Sea Scrolls come from an Essene community at Qumran. The Therapeutae were a similar sect, but bred out of the Judaic Hellenistic movement in Egypt at the end of the first century B.C. They were strictly ascetic and contemplative. Philo Judaeus, or Philo of Alexandria (c. 13 B.C. - c. 50 A.D.) was the greatest Jewish philosopher and theologian of the Greco-Roman period of Jewish history. He was deeply influenced by Plato and attempted to make Judaism comprehensible to the Greeks.

232. Marcion was a second century semi-gnostic heretic who believed in two gods, the Old Testament God of anger and retribution who created the world and evil, and the father of Jesus Christ, who was perfect goodness and completely aloof from the world. Condemned in Rome in 144, he produced a Gospel that was essentially the Pauline epistles and Luke minus whatever Marcion considered Jewish corruptions. The rest of Scripture he completely rejected. The Church's canon of books of Scripture was considerably hastened by Marcion's Gospel.

233. Vasilii Nikolaevich Karpov (1798-1867) was a philosopher of the Idealist tradition. He taught philosophy at the Kiev and St. Petersburg Academies, and among his many works is Vvedenie v filosofiiu (St. Petersburg, 1840). His chief renown, however, is as the Russian translator of Plato (the second, complete edition of Plato's works came out in St. Petersburg from 1863 to 1879).

234. Auguste Friedrich Winkler (1767-1838), a German, was a professor of philosophy at the University of Halle and later at Jena. His "textbook" was standard in many universities throughout Germany and Eastern Europe.

235. Vasilii Borisovich Bazhanov (1800-1883) graduated from the St. Petersburg Academy and taught German there. He served also as a catechist at the Second Military Academy before replacing Pavskii as religious tutor to the future Emperor Alexander II in 1835. In 1848 he became the confessor for the imperial family and chief priest at the court chapel. His lessons for Alexander were published in 1839 as Ob obiazannostiakh khristianina.

236. Seredinskii (1822-1897) later was a well-known chaplain at the Russian embassies in Naples and Berlin. He authored O bogosluzhenii zapadnoi tserkvi (St. Petersburg, 1849-1856) and numerous other works on Catholic and Protestant religious life.

237. Agafangel subsequently became archbishop of Volynia and in the 1860's he openly attacked the Over Procurator's domineering and arbitrariness. He died in 1876.

238. This was the corrected Slavonic version commissioned by the Holy Synod in 1723 but first issued in 1751, during the reign of Empress Elizabeth.

239. A professor of theology and Greek, Mikhail Ismailovich Bogoslovskii (1807-1884) later became the head chaplain of the armed forces and a venerable protopresbyter at the Usspenskii cathedral in Moscow. He published a Kurs obshchago tserkovnago prava (Moscow, 1885) and took an active part in translating the Old Testament into Russian.

240. The Uchilishcha Pravovedeniia [School of Jurisprudence] was established in St. Petersburg in 1835 through the efforts of Prince Petr G. Ol'denburg. It was administered under the auspices of the Ministry of Justice and was exclusively for noble youths. I.S. Aksakov and the composer Chaikovskii were among its famous students.

241. Dmitrii Muretov graduated from the Kiev Academy in 1834, and was a professor and rector there. Named bishop of Tula in 1850, he went to Kherson, or Odessa, first in 1857 and succeeded to archbishop of Iaroslavl in 1874, returning to the Crimea the next year as archbishop.

242. They had been published in Khristianskoe chtenie in 1842 as Dogmatic Teaching Selected from the Writings of our Holy Father Dimitrii of Rostov, Saint and Miracle Worker [Sviatago ottsa nashego Dimitriia Rostovskago, sviatitelia i chudotvortsa, dogmaticheskoe uchenie, vybrannoe iz ego sochinenii]. [ Author's note ] .

243. The Symbol of Faith, the Nicene-Constantinopolitan creed, is divided into four parts, on God the Father, Jesus Christ, the Holy Spirit, and the Church, and each part contains several articles.

244. Innokentii Borisov. See above, note 66.

245. Makarii Bulgakov served as chairman of the committee to discuss the reform of church courts, formed in 1870. The issue which the committee addressed, the power and function of ecclesiastical courts, was greatly publicized. A history of abuses had led the public to distrust the asbitrariness of bishops and to push for an ecclesiastical judiciary which would be autonomous of the executive branch of the church. Count D.A. Tolstoi, a supporter of this liberal position, appointed Makarii chairman of the committee on the basis of his liberal position on the reform of the ecclesiastical system of education. After three years of internal disputes, the committee proposed a bill based on the separation of judicial and executive powers. This bill earned Makarii and the committee bitter criticism from all of the influential bishops, as exemplified by A.F. Lavrov, The Planned Reform of the Ecclesiastical Court (Petersburg, 1873, Vol. I). For a more detailed discussion, see Igor Smolitsch, Geschichte Der Russischen Kirche 1700-1917 (Leiden, 1964), pp. 174-77.246. Nikanor Brovkovich. See above, note 149.

247. A graduate of the Moscow Academy, Nikita Petrovich Giliarov-Platonov (1824-1887) was a well-known commentator on current affairs. He taught at the Moscow Academy, was a member of the Moscow censorship committee, and carried out special commissions for the Ministry of Education. From 1867 until his death he devoted himself to publicistic activity, publishing a daily newspaper in Moscow with Slavophile leanings (Sovremennye Izvestiia) and contributing to other Slavophile journals. His autobiography, Iz perezhitogo (Moscow, 1886) contains a talented portrayal of the mores of his time and the spiritual environment of the ecclesiastical schools of which he was a product.

248. Istoriia russkoi tserkvi, in 13 volumes; most recently published in St. Petersburg, 1889-1903.

249. Ioann Sokolov (1818-1869) is best remembered as a preacher and canonist. He studied at the Moscow Academy and taught in Kazan' and St. Petersburg,where he was also rector. He died as bishop of Smolensk. His Opyt kursa tserkovnago zakonovedeniia (St. Petersburg, 1851-1852) is a fundamental work on Russian canon law. See below, pp. 259-262.

250. See above, note 149.

251. On Strauss and Bauer see above, note 230. Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach (1804-1872) was a famous German atheist philosopher. He taught that God is a subjective principle produced by the human consciousness and that all religion is psychological illusion. His chief work is Das Wesen des Christentums (Leipzig, 1841; English translation The Essence of Christianity, London, 1854) and his collected works were published also in Leipzig from 1846 to 1866.

252. The Survey was first published as articles in Christian Reading in 1852 and 1853, and then separately in 1856 and 1858. [Author's note].

253. The Crimean War (1855-1856) had shown clearly to all the shortcomings in the Russian state, and when Alexander II took the throne in 1855 he immediately turned his attention to comprehensive reforms of the Russian social, political, legal, and military system. The first problem to be dealt with was that of the peasantry. In 1856 Alexander opened official discussion on the emancipation of the serfs, and after much stalling on the part of the landowning nobles the Act of Emancipation was issued in 1861. This was followed in 1864 by political reforms, creating the organs of local self-government the zemtstvos, and a new court system with jury trials. Censorship was relaxed and the educational system expanded particularly at the primary level. On the one hand these reforms brought some hope to disaffected segments of society, but eventually they proved insufficient to deal with the pressing problems Russia was facing.

254. Afanasii Prokof'evich Shchapov (1830-1876) was a Russian historian of the federalist or "regional" school, which concentrated on the history of popular, rather than governmental institutions. A son of a priest near Irkutsk in Siberia, he graduated from the Kazan' Academy and taught Russian history both there and at Kazan' University. He was deeply interested in the plight of the peasantry, and was arrested in 1861 for criticizing the recent reforms for their inadequacy in another public address. His chief work is his study of the Church Schism, Zemstvo i raskol (St. Petersburg, 1862). His collected works were printed in three volumes in St. Petersburg, 1906-1908.

255. It was published in The Orthodox Interlocutor [Pravoslavnyi sobesednik], 1863. [Author's note] .

256. Aleksei Petrovich Akhmatov (1818-1870) was Over Procurator of the Holy Synod for only a year (1863-1864). A soldier by profession, he was a cavalry officer in the Crimean War, rose to the rank of adjutant-general, and served as military governor of Khar'kov.

257. The bishops of the Orthodox Church are traditionally drawn exclusively from the monastics. If a non-monk is elected to an episcopal see he must first be tonsured a monk before he can be consecrated.

258. St. Athanasius (295-373), bishop of Alexandria, was a great Trinitarian theologian and leader of the struggle against the Arians. The Cappadocians are Basil the Great (d. 379), bishop of Caesarea and a leading defender of Nicene orthodoxy; Gregory of Nazianzus (d. 390), known as "the Theologian" for both his doctrinal works and spiritual poetry; aiid Gregory of Nyssa (d. 394), whose work tended to be more philosophical and mystical. St. Ephrem the Syrian (c. 306-373) was the most important representative of Syrian Christianity in the fourth century. He left many theological works, Biblical commentaries and hymns.

259. Over Procurator of the Holy Synod from 1880 to 1905, Konstantin Petrovich Pobedonostsev (1827-1907) was an ultra-conservative and nationalist thinker. The son of a priest, he began his career in the civil service, and also lectured in law at the University of Moscow. In 1861 he was hired as a tutor to Alexander II's son the future Alexander III, and later he was in charge of the education of Nicholas II, the last tsar of Russia. In 1864 he worked on the legal reforms and was named to the Senate and the State Council. Pobedonostsev was at the head of the conservative reaction following the assassination of Alexander II in 1881 and remained a close advisor to Alexander III and Nioholas II. Although he possessed great erudition and was widely traveled, his extreme ideas isolated him from contemporary intellectual society, and one of his only friends was the novelist Dostoevskii. See R.F. Bymes, Pobedonostsev: His Life and Thought (1968).

260. O dogmaticheskom dostoinstve i okhranitelhom upotreblenii grecheskago semidesiaty tolkovnikov i slavianskago perevoda Sviashchennago Pisaniia. It was published only in 1858 in the Moscow Academy Journal Supplement.

261. Gavriil was formerly a professor at the seminary in Riazan' and rector of the Orlov Seminary. In 1828 he was made bishop of Kaluga then moved to Mogilev in 1831, where he worked to bring the Uniates of West Russia back into the Orthodox Church. In 1837 he became archbishop of Riazan', where he remained until his death in 1862.

262. Nikolai Gerasimovich Pomialovskii (1835-1863) was a graduate of the St. Petersburg seminary. His critique of the seminaries, Ocherki bursy was printed in the journals Vremia and Sovremennik in 1862-1863. On Rostislavov see above, note 150. Ivan Sawich Nikitin (1824-1861) was a well-known Russian poet. His Dnevnik seminarista [Diary of a Seminarian] appared in Voronezhskaia Beseda in 1861.

263. Viktor Ipat'evich Askochenskii (1820-1879) studied at the Voronezh Seminary and finished the master's course at the Kiev Academy. Remaining in the chair of patrology, he became a full professor in 1846. Most of his literary activity was in the journal Domashniaia Beseda, which he founded in 1854 but because of censorship did not come out until 1858. He also wrote a short Istoriia russkoi literatury (Kiev, 1846) and Kiev s drevneishim ego uchilishchem (Kiev, 1856).

264. The Kazan' gymnasium was given university status only in 1805, two years before Aksakov graduated, and he doubted the school's ability to grant him a university degree. Sergei Timofeevich Aksakov (1791-1859) the father of the Slavophiles Konstantin and Ivan, was a civil servant inspired by the works of Gogol to produce his own novels. His three chief works all translated into English, are the autobiographical novels Semeinaia khronika (1856;  English translation Chronicle of a Russian Family, 1924), Vospominaniia (1856 Autobiography of a Russian Schoolboy, 1917), and Detskii gody bagrova-vnuka (1858; Years of Childhood, 1916).

265. Raznochinets was a term applied in the l8th and l9th centuries to "people of various classes," or those who left their hereditary social station without formerly entering another legal class. More specifically in Russian literature it refers to members of the lower social strata, such as peasants and priest's sons, who took leading roles in the provincial intelligentsia.

266. A political reactionary and literary disciple of Shishkov Prince Platon Aleksandrovich Shirinskii-Shikhmatov (1790-1853) began to work for the Ministry of Education in 1824, and was minister from 1850 until his death. He also headed the St. Petersburg Archeographic Commission and was a member of the Academy of Sciences.

267. Avraam Sergeevich Norov (1795-1869) was a hero of the battle of Borodino, and afterwards worked in vasious government offices. In 1850 he became assistant Miruster of Education and succeeded Shirinskii-Shikmatov in 1854, remaining in the post until 1858. Norov was versed in many languages and was very well traveled, leaving a five volume Puteshestviia (St. Petersburg, 1854) of a journey to Sicily, the Holy Land and Egypt.