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1. The close ties between Poland and Lithuania began in 1385 when Grand Prince Jagietto of Lithuania agreed with Polish ambassadors to be baptized into the Catholic Church, marry the 12 year old Queen Jadwiga of Poland, and accede to the Polish throne as King Wtadystaw. Further agreements between Poland and Lithuania in 1401 and 1413 strengthened this "personal union." Although it lapsed at the end of the l5th century, the senates of both states then agreed that the King of Poland would also hold the title of Grand Prince of Lithuania, and at the city of Lublin on July 1, 1569 a common parliment was formed, finalizing the union.
2. Scattered pagan Lithuanian tribes first began to unite before the middle of the l3th century under Mindaugas Mindove or Mendovg, (d. 1263) to combat the Teutonic Knights. Mindaugas, crowned Lithuania's first and only king by Pope Innocent IV, already began to expand eastward and southward into Kievan Rus', which had been ravaged by the Tatars. Gediminas (d. 1341), however, was the real builder of the Lithuanian state, moving its frontiers to the Dnieper River and establishing his capital at Vilna. His son Algiridas (or Olherd, d. 1377) continued to expand into Western Russia, taking Kiev in 1362, and earlier, in 1355, was able to secure a separate metropolitan for his Orthodox subjects. For the early history of the Lithuanian Metropolitanate of Kiev see Dmitrii Obolenskii, "Byzantium, Kiev and Moscow, A study in Ecclesiastical Relations," Dumbarton Oaks Papers, no. 11, 1957.
3. The territory of Galicia, situated on the northeastern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains in present day Ukraine, first became a strong and independent power under Prince Roman (1189-1205) of Vladimir in Volynia, and later under his son Daniel (1245-1264). Although Daniel received k crown from papal legates, the independence of Galicia was constantly threatened by Hungary, Lithuania and the Tatars, and in the latter half of the l4th century it was divided between Poland and Lithuania. A separate metropolitanate was created for Galicia in 1303 and lasted intermittently until 1347. See M. Hrushevsky, A History of the Ukraine (New Haven, 1941), pp. 96-123.
4. Gregory Tsamblak, a Bulgarian and nephew of Metropolitan Kirill (see Chapter I, section IV), held the office of metropolitan of Lithuania from 1415 until his death in 1420. The Lithuanian Grand Prince Vitovt (Vytautas, 1392-1430) had attempted to secure his own metropolitan from the patriarch of Constantinople, but his candidate, Gregory, was instead deposed in 1414. Thereupon, ignoring the authority of the patriarch, the Lithuanian Orthodox clergy met in council and named Gregory their metropolitan themselves. See I. Wlasowsky, Outline History of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (New York, 1956), v.l, pp. 109-110.
5. The Council of Constance, the 16th general council of the Catholic Church, met from Nov. 5, 1414 to April 22, 1418. It had three purposes: 1) to resolve the "Western Schism," brought on by the simultaneous claims to the papacy of Gregory XII and anti-popes John XXIII and Benedict XIII; 2) to condemn the heresies of John Wycliffe and Jan Hus (Hus was burned at the stake there in 1415); and 3) to initiate reforms strengthening the power of councils at the expense of the papacy. See L.R. Loomis, tr., The Council of Constance, ed. J.H. Mundy and K.M. Woody (New York, 1961).
6. See Chapter I, note 53.
7. See Chapter I, note 52.
8. Gregory Mammas (d. 1459), one of the leaders of the pro-union party in Constantinople and a supporter of the Council of Florence, was elected Orthodox patriarch of Constantinople in 1445. Opposition to the union forced him to abandon his see and come to Rome in 1450, where he served with Isidore and Bessarion as advisers to Popes Nicholas V, Calixtus III and Pius II in their efforts to enforce the union first in Co&127;stantinople, and after its fall in Eastern Europe.
9. See, for example, the letter of March 14, 1476 sent from West Russia to Pope Sixtus IV which had as one of its signators the metropolitanslect Misael (Pstruch or Pstrukis). The full text of the letter is published in Arkhiv Iugozapadnoi Rossii, vol. III, part I, (Kiev, 1887), 199-211. There is a discussion of the letter and the relevant bibliography in Oscar Halecki, From Florence to Brest (1439-1596J, (second edition, Archon Books, 1968), 99-103. [Author's note. ]
10. See Chapter I, note 113.
11. The Arians were followers of the early 4th century Alexandrian presbyter Arius (d. 336) who taught that the only true God is God the Father, and that Christ was not truly divine, i.e. there "was when he was not." Condemned at the First Ecumenical Council at Nicaea in 325, the Arian heresy was rather widespread and provoked a bitter controversy throughout the Church in the 4th century, a controversy which raged until the Second Ecumenical Council at Constantinople in 381. The term "Arian" was therefore applied to various Anti-Trinitarian or Unitarian sects which arose during the Protestant Reformation.
12. Sigismund II Augustus (1548-1572), in whose reign the Union of Lublin was established, was the last of the descendants of Jagiet to hold the Polish throne. During his reign there was no official "state" religion and therefore an unusual degree of freedom of religious discussion and worship.
13. Stephen Batory, the prince of Transylvania, was elected to the throne after Henri de Valois vacated it to claim the French crown, and during his reign led three brilliant military campaigns against Ivan IV's forces in Lithuania. Although Batory was a Calvinist before he converted to accept the throne, he soon became a devout champion of Catholicism, cooperating with the Jesuits in the Catholic restoration in Poland, and even attempted to force his Orthodox subjects to accept the calendar reform of Gregory XIII (see below).
14. Sigismund III Vasa (1587-1632), a devout Catholic, was elected king on the premature death of Stephen Batory. It is interesting to note that, acting as the traditional protector of the Orthodox subjects of the Commonwealth, he issued a royal charter on July 15, 1589 authorizing Patriarch Jeremiah's visit to Lithuania (see below, section V) and any action he might take on religious matters, and confirmed Jeremiah's deposition of metropolitan of Kiev Onesifor as well as his decision to put the Brotherhoods of Lvov and Vilno outside the jurisdiction of the local bishops, who were appointed by the Polish crown. (The charter is reprinted in Russkaia istoricheskaia biblioteka, VII, col. 1117-1121.) However, on December 15, 1596, shortly after the Union of Brest, he virtually outlawed the Orthodox Church by calling on all Orthodox Christians to join the union and banning all opposition to the union. In the latter part of his reign he twice invaded Muscovite Russia; in 1610 while Muscovy was in its "Time of Troubles" to try and gain the Russian crown for himself, and again in 1617 to support his son and successor Wtadystaw's claim to the throne.
15. Giovanni Commendone (1524-1584) was the papal nuncio to Poland from 1563-1565. He was responsible for obtaining King Sigismund II's acceptance of the decrees of the Council of Trent (see note 196) and for persuading him to give the Jesuits his royal protection in Poland, thereby setting the stage for the Catholic restoration activities begun under Stephen Batory. He was also the first of the papal nuncios to give attention to the problem of converting the Orthodox, as well as the Protestants, to the Roman Church. Later he returned as a papal legate to get Poland's participation in an anti-Ottoman league.
16. Stanislaus Cardinal Hosius (Stanistaw Hozjusz) (1504-1579), the great Polish bishop and one of the leading Catholic hierarchs of the l6th century, had been a presiding member of the Council of Trent. Renowned for his zeal in combatting the opponents of Catholicism, he was referred to by contemporaries as the "second Augustine" and the "hammer of heretics." It was he who actually introduced the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) in Poland in 1564. Between 1564 and 1654 50 Jesuit establishments were founded in Poland.
17. See below, section IV.
18. The "nation" or millet system had long been used by Moslem rulers to deal with religious minorities within their realms. Each "nation" was allowed to govern its internal affairs according to its own laws and customs, and the religious head of the "nation" was responsible for it before the Moslem authorities. After the conquest of Byzantium, the Turkish rulers extended this system to the Orthodox under the patriarch of Constantinople.
19. I.e. Peter Mogila (Movila in Romanian, Mohyla in Ukrainian). See below, section VII.
20. Zakharii Kopystenskii (d. 1627) was a leading Orthodox monastic in the period after the Union of Brest. See below, section V.
21. Russkaia istoricheskaia biblioteka, IV, 813.
22. Artemii's epistles are published in Russkaia istoricheskaia biblioteka, IV, col. 1201-1448. See also S.G. Vilinskii, Poslaniia startsa Artemiia XVI veka, (Odessa, 1906).
23. Socinianism was an Anti-Trinitarian offshoot of the Protestant Reformation. It took its name from two early proponents of the heresy in Italy, Laelius (1525-1562) and Faustus (1539-1604) Socinus, who taught that Christ was not divine by nature, but only by office. The center of the movement soon shifted to the Poland-Lithuania Commonwealth, where Faustus Socinus himself moved, and where it divided into two rival factions. The Polish faction, led by Socinus, held that it was proper to address Christ in prayer because of His divine office, and preached non-participation in government and in the military. The Lithuanian group, which Budny joined and soon led, included several local noblemen who kept their positions in the goverriment, and taught that since Christ was not truly God it was therefore forbidden to pray to Him, hence the name non-adorantes. The two groups were somewhat reconciled at a synod in 1584, but Budny himself was excommunicated from them and died a few years later. See E.M. Wilbur, A History of Unitarianism, vol. I (Cambridge, Mass., 1945).
24. Budny's Katekhizis was published (although not in full) in Arkheograficheskii sbornik dokumentov, otnosiashchikhsia k istorii severo-zapadnoi Rusi, vol. VIII, (Vilna, 1870), xvi-xxiv. Fragments of the Opravdanie were published in Opyt' rossiiskoi bibliografii V.S. Sopikova, ch. I, (St. Petersburg, 1813). The latest essay on Budny is by S. Kot in Studien zur alteren Geschichte Osteuropas 1 (Festschrift frv H.F. Schmid), (Graz-Koln, 1956), pp. 63-118.
25. See Chapter I, note 41.
26. See Chapter I, note 43.
27. See Chapter I, note 49.
28. St. John of Damascus (d. 777), the last great theologian of the Patristic age, was the leading defender of Orthodoxy during the controversy over icons, and is best known for his De Fide Orthodoxa or An Exact Exposition of the Orthodox Faith, as well as the numerous prayers and hymns attributed to him.
29. See above, Chapter I, section VI.
30. Artemii had a number of private pupils, one of whom - Mark Sarygozin - later worked with Kurbskii on Patristic translations. [Author's note.] Little is known about Sarygozin (or Sarykhozin). He deserted to Lithuania along with Timofei Teterin, an army officer who fled about the same time as Prince Kurbskii. In an undated letter to Sarygozin, Kurbskii relates his interest in Patritic writings and asks Sarygozin to visit him in Lithuania to help translate the Fathers into Church Slavonic. Cf. J.L.I. Fennell, editor and translator, The Correspondence between Prince A.M. Kurbsky and Tsar Ivan IV of Russia, 1564-1579, (Cambridge, 1963), p. 182, n. 7. The Kurbskii correspondence should be read with caution and in the light of the possible significance of Edward L. Keenan's research. See footnote 54 of Chapter I.
31. There is an English translation of Kurbskii's history by J.L.I. Fennell, Kurbsky's History of Ivan IV, (Cambridge, 1965).
32. See above, Chapter I, section VI.
33. A controversy exists as to whether or not, prior to the l7th century, libraries in Moscow contained Greek manuscripts. One view, based on probability, claims that they were brought by Greek scholars who came with Sophia Palaeologos; consequently at the time of Ivan IV a sizable collection was available. The opposite case, resting on the absence of evidence, holds that until the l7th century only Slavonic material was at hand. The problem remains unsolved. [Author's note. ]
34. St. John Chrysostom, the "Golden Mouth" (d. 407), is one of the most renowned and beloved figures in the history of the Orthodox Church. He is known mostly for his fearless preaching in Constantinople, his numerous homilies on the New Testament Gospels and Epistles, and the Divine Liturgy most commonly celebrated in Orthodox churches, which is attributed to him.
35. St. Gregory Nazianzus, the "Theologian" (c. 330-383), was, along with St. Basil and his brother St. Gregory Nyssa, one of the great 4th century thinkers who led the church to the final victory over Arianism and helped to standardize the theological terminology over which so many battles were fought in the 4th century Trinitarian and Sth century Christological controversies.
36. St. Cyril, patriarch of Alexandria from 412 until his death in 444, led the struggle against the Nestorians, who taught that Christ's divine and human natures were entirely separate and that since Mary gave birth to his human nature only she could not be called Theotokos [the Mother of God] . St. Cyril was the dominant figure at the Third Ecumenical Council at Ephesus in 431, which condemned the Nestorian heresy.
37. See above, note 28.
38. The Historia ecclesiastica of Nicephorus Callistus Xanthopoulos (c. 1260- 1335) contains 18 books tracing the history of the Church from the beginnings of Christianity to the reign of the Byzantine Emperor Phocas (602-610). Nicephorus Callistus was also known for various writings on liturgical themes as well as a catalogue of Church Fathers, emperors, patriarchs, melodists and saints.
39. See Kurbskii's Introduction to his New Pearl [Novyi margarit] included in N.G. Ustrialov, Skazaniia kniazia Kurbskogo, (St. Petersburg, 1868). [Author's note.]
40. Where this rumor arose and how it reached Kurbskii is unknown. It was probably through Maxim the Greek, although he could have heard it from Greeks who settled in Volynia after the destruction of Constantinople. [Author's note.]
41. Nicholas Cabasilas (1320-1390) was a distinguished hesychast mystic and a firm opponent of Latin theology and scholasticism. He is best known, however, for his Life in Christ, tr. C.J. de Catanzaro (St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1974) and A Commentary on the Divine Liturgy, tr. S.M. Hussy (London, 1960).
42. The study of the eclectic philosophy and magnificent prose style of Cicero (106-43 B.C.), the great Roman orator and statesman, was a standard part of the curiiculum of the ancient schools in which many early Christian writers were trained. His influence is especially felt in such Western Fathers as Ambrose, Jerome, and Augustine.
43. The Mamonich family were well-established printers in Vilna. Two of the best known of them were the brothers Kuzma and Lukash, who owned their own printing office and were printers for the Lithuanian government.
44. The Dialectica and De fide orthodoxa, along with a section On Heresies in Epitomies and a short introduction, form the four parts of St. John of Damascus' principle work Fount of Knowledge. De fide orthodoxa is the usual title given the fourth section of the Fount, but the full title is An Exact Exposition of the Orthodox Faith.
45. Not much is known about the life of John, Exarch of Bulgaria (d.c. 925) or even what the title "Exarch" refers to, but several of his works are known. His translation of De fide orthodoxa comes from the years 891-2, he also wrote a commentary on the six days of creation [Shestodnev] based on St. Basil's Hexameron, and his Homilies are being edited in Sofia by Dora Ivanova Mircheva.
46. Johann Spangenberg (1484-1550) was an indefatigable worker for the cause of the Reformation. Born in Hardegsen in 1484, he was later known as Hardesius, Hardesianus, and Herdesianus. After imbibing the spirit of humanism at the University of Erfurt, he became both school rector and preacher at Stolberg. He became an early sympathizer of the ideas of the Reformation and as early as the beginning of the 1520's, according to his biographer Menzel, he began to interpret the Scriptures in an unaccustomed way [non consueto more.]. In 1524 he was invited to the imperial city of Nordhausen and there he served as both educator and pastor; he opened his own school and hence is often known as "Scholae Nordhusanae Episcopum." Spangenberg's reputation as pastor and educator spread rapidly and in 1546 Luther requested that Spangenberg go to Mansfeld in order to superintend the entire affairs of the church there. He worked tirelessly, sometimes preaching four times a day. In 1550 Spangenberg died, leaving behind his wife of forty-three years and four sons (three of whom became theologians). Spangenberg wrote hymns, sermons, works of a doctrinal nature and works on general moral development. In his Nfargarita theologica he transposes Melanchthon's Loci theologici into the form of questions. His Trivii Erotomata dealt with the trivium in the form of questions.
47. Fragments of partially completed translations, among them sections of Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History, exist in manuscript form. [Author's note.] The Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea (d. 339) is by far the most famous of early church histories and the prime source for all research into the Christian Church. A critical edition of this work was compiled by Edward Schwartz and published in Griechische Christliche Schriftsteller (Leipzig, 1903- 1909).
48. Commonly but erroneously ascribed to Maxim the Greek. [Author's note.]
49. Theodoret, bishop of Cyrus (423-466), was a theologian of the Antioch tradition, from which Nestorius came, and his friendship and sympathy for Nestorius was to prove his undoing later, for although he formally condemned Nestorius at Chalcedon in 451, he himself was condemned as one of the "Three Chapters" at the Fifth Ecumenical Council in Constantinople in 553. Outside of the Christological controversies, however, he was known for his valuable Scriptural exegeses.
50. Many extant fragments of commentaries on the Psalms, Genesis, Ecclesiastes and the Song of Songs have been attributed to St. Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria from 328 to 373, a courageous fighter against the Arians who was exiled five times from his see and is best known for his Three Discourses Against the Arians and The Life of St. Anthony.
51. Ivan Fedorov had set up the first printing press in Moscow in 1564 but was soon driven out by a superstitious mob aroused by the professional manuscript copiers. He then went to Zadlubov in Lithuania, where he printed the Gospels in 1568 and, when his patron lost interest in the project, moved on to establish the first press in Lvov in 1573. Later he went to Ostrog to work for Prince Konstantin where he printed the Ostrog Bible (1580-1581). After that he tried to start his own establishment back in Lvov but died there in 1583.
52. Petr Mstislavets had been Fedorov's assistant in Moscow. He came with him to Lithuania and settled in Vilna, where he printed the Gospels and the Psalms.
53. The Chodkiewicz family was one of the most prominent noble families in Lithuania and was highly sympathetic to the Protestant Reformation. Grigorii Chodkiewicz, the castellane of Vilna, who was himself Orthodox, set aside his entire income of one of his large villages to finance Fedorov's printing operation.
54. See below, section IV.
55. On bookprinting during this period see M.N. Tikhomirov, "Nachale moskovskogo knigopechataniia," Uchenye zapiski MGU (Moscow, 1940) and A.V. Zernov, Nachalo knigopechataniia v Moskve i na Ukraine (Moscow, 1547).
56. Gerasim Smotritskii was the first rector of the Ostrog Academy, the principal collaborator in the preparation of the Ostrog Bible, the author of its Preface, and the author of The Key to the Kingdom of Heaven, a defense of Orthodoxy against the Uniates written in 1584. See below.
57. On a United Faith was published in Ostrog in 1583 and is preserved in Russkaia istoricheskaia biblioteka, VII, 601-938.
58. Demian Nalivaiko was the priest of St. Nicholas Church in Ostrog. His brother Semerin was the organizer of his own band of Cossacks who revolted in the fall of 1595 and plundered the territory around the city of Lutsk, including the estates of Bishop Terletskii, who was in Rome at the time receiving the Pope's blessing of the Union of Brest (see below). The following year Semerin was captured by the Polish army, tortured in prison for a year, and beheaded.
59. Jan Liatos (c. 1539-1605), a Catholic, was a professor at the University of Cracow who was dismissed from his position because he opposed the calendar reform of Pope Gregory XIII. See below.
60. Jacob Susza, Saulus et Paulus. [Author's note.] Jacob Susza (1610-1687) was the bishop of Chelm from 1652 and the head of the Uniate Basilian order of monks from 1661 to 1667. His Saulus et Paulus ruthenae unionis sanguine beati Josaphati transformatus sive Meletius Smotricius was published in Rome in 1656.
61. Veliamin Rutskii, the Uniate metropolitan of Ostrog, viewed Ostrozhskii's plan as an effort to counterbalance the Uniate College of St. Athanasius founded in Rome in 1576 by the Jesuit Antonio Possevino. The purpose of this school was to educate Greeks and Slavs of the Eastern rite. [Author's note.] Rutskii (1574-1637) succeeded Hypatius Pociej (see below, note 87) as Uniate metropolitan of Kiev in 1613. He worked unsuccessfully against the activities of the Orthodox Brotherhood of Kiev and organized the Uniate monasteries under his control into a regular order under the rule of St. Basil.
62. Cyril Lucaris was one of the most important and tragic figures in the Orthodox Church of this time. Born in Crete in 1572, he received a broad humanist education at the Greek school in Venice and the University of Padua. He was ordained priest by his cousin, Meletius Pigas, the patriarch of Alexandria and sent to Eastern Europe to help the Orthodox in their struggle against the Union of Brest. He attended the Orthodox synod of 1596 in Brest (see below) and taught in the Orthodox schools of Ostrog, Vilna and Lvov. Forced to flee for a short time because he was accused of being a Turkish spy, he returned to the Lvov school for another brief period in 1600 and then was elected patriarch of Alexandria in 1601. While patriarch of Alexandria, he acquired several Dutch and Engtish Protestant friencTs with whom he corresponded on religious matters, and by 1617 he was taking open Protestant positions on such matters as sacraments and icons. In 1620 Lucaris was elected patriarch of Constantinople and became the focal point of the constant intrigues surrounding that see under the Turks. His Confession, first published in Latin at Geneva in 1629, had a thoroughly pro-Calvinist character, and caused Lucaris to be a special target of the Jesuits at the Ottoman court who were mainly responsible for his depositions in 1621, 1633, and 1635. Finally, in 1638 both Cyril Lucaris and his Confession were condemmed at a synod in Constantinople, he was arrested by the Turks on charges of treason and while sailing to exile he was murdered by the sailors on his ship: The best account of Cyril's life was compiled by Thomas Smith, Collectanea de Cyrillo Lucario (London, 1707); a modern work on Cyril is G.A. Hadjiantoniou, Protestant Patriarch (Richmond, Va., 1961).
63. See below, section V.
64. Pope Gregory XIII (1572-1585) was known for his attempts to win back England, Sweden, and even Russia for Catholicism, his promotion of the Jesuit order, and the Gregorian University in Rome, which he founded. He is best remembered, however, for appointing a commission to revise the old Julian calendar and carrying out its recommendations to advance the calendar from October 4 to October 15, 1582.
65. Primoz Truber (1508-1586) was the leader of the Lutheran movement in Carnolia (a province of the Austrian empire, now part of Yugoslavia). He first published a Slovene translation of the Gospels, Acts and the Epistle to the Romans at Tubingen in 1557-60. The next year he added a translation of Galatians and I and II Corinthians. Later he published, along with another Carnolian reformer, Jurij Dalmatin, a complete Slovene Bible at Wurttemburg in 1584. See L. Legisa and A. Gspan, eds., Zgodvina slovenskega slovstva (Ljubljana, 1956), I, pp. 206-44.
66. Vasilii Tiapinskii was a minor noble from Polotsk who translated and printed the Gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke and showed a Socinian influence. See M.V. Dovnar-Zanol'skii, V. Tiapinskii, perevodchik Evangeliia na belorusskoe narechie (St. Petersburg, 1899).
67. Not much is known about Negalevskii. His translation of the Gospels was accompanied by a Socinian introduction and commentaries and was not printed at the time.
68. Marcin Czechowicz (1532-1613) was a Calvinist minister in Vilna who joined the Anti-Trinitarians and later, as the head of a large Unitarian congregation in Lublin, became the most influential Unitarian theologian in Poland next to Faustus Socinus (see note 23). His Polish translation of the New Testament was made to counteract the Bible of Szymon Budny (of the non-adorantes in Lithuania). His most fanious work is De Paedobaptistarum errorum origine, (Lublin,l575).
69. Skorina (d. after 1535) was a doctor of medicine and a former student of the Universities of Cracow and Padua. He began printing books first in Prague and after 1525 in Vilna.
70. The Utraquists were a conservative religious group in Bohemia which split with the Roman Church over the issue of communion in both species. They were recognized by the Council of Basel (see below, note 94) but relations with Rome fell apart when the Pope refused to recognize their candidate for their bishop. In 1451 they sent a representative to Constantinople to discuss union with the Greek Church, but as the patriarchal throne was vacant the project was confined to the exchange of friendly messages and was forgotten when the city fell to the Turks two years later. Meanwhile the more radical descendants of the Hussites were gaining strength in Bohemia and when Luthei appeared on the scene the members of the Utraquist Church either went over to the Reformation or were reabsorbed into.the Catholic Church. Their Bible, published at Venice in 1506, was based on Hus' Bible, which was itself a revision of a vernacular version supposedly the work of SS. Cyril and Methodius (see Chapter I, note 15).
71. See above, Chapter I, note 86.
72. See above, Chapter I, note 72.
73. Medieval Jewish communities handed down the basic Hebrew consonantal text of the Old Testament with a Masora, a system of vowel markings and divisions to aid pronunciation in the public reading of the Scriptures. The Masora was standardized in the lOth century and the Massoretic text edited by the Jew Jacob ben Chayyim and published in Venice in 1524-1525 became the prototype for most printed versions of the Hebrew Old Testament.
74. The Septuagint, the earliest translation of the Old Testament into Greek, which dates fror : the first three centuries before Christ, was printed for the first time by Andreas Asulanus in 1518 on the presses of Aldus Manutius in Venice.
75. Cardinal Ximenes de Cisneros (1436-1517) was a great Spanish ecclesiastic, statesman and Grand Inquisitor. His polygot Bible, printed in Alcala in Spain contained parallel columns of the Hebrew, Aramaic, Septuagint and Latin Old Testaments and the New Testament in Greek and Latin. It was the first and most famous of several l6th century polyglot Bibles.
76. See above, Chapter I, note 83.
77. Ostrozhskii's brother-in-law was John Christopher Tarnowski, with whom Peter Skarga (see below) lived for two years. Ostrozhskii's daughter married Jan Kiszka, the leading Socinian noble in Lithuania. For a genealogy of the Ostrozhskii family see J. Wolff, Kniaziowie litewsko-ruscy (Warsaw, 1895).
78. "Vindiciae pro Unitariorum in Polonia Religionis ubertate, ab Equite Polone conscriptae," in Christopher Sandius, Bibliotheca Antitrinitariorum, (Freistadii-Amsterdam, 1684). [Author's note.]
79. Motovila (also spelled Motowiko or Motowilko), an obscure unitarian, probably a Lithuanian, appears to have been a millenarian. The only information about him seems to come from a letter written by Prince Kurbskii in 1578. His book was never published.
80. Peter Skarga (1536-1612) was the most influential Polish Jesuit of his time. He began his career as the chancellor of the Catholic archdiocese of Lvov where he made early contacts with Ostrozhskii. After he entered the Jesuit order, he helped found schools in Jaroslaw and Vilna and, when the college at Vilna became the first Jesuit university in 1578, Skarga was its first rector. His celebrated book, actually written three years before it was published, dealt with the Greek Church in the tradition of the Council of Florence. Its main arguments for reunion were that the Byzantine emperor and patriarch had originally accepted the Union of Florence, thus restoring the unity of the whole church under the Pope which had existed severat centuries earlier, and that the contemporary Greek patriarch was under the humiliating domination of the Turks and was elected and deposed contrary to canon law. The book was reprinted in 1590 with a dedication to King Sigismund III, at whose court Skarga had been official preacher since 1588. In the preface to the second edition Skarga complained that wealthy Orthodox nobles (i.e., Ostrozhskii) were buying up all the copies of the first edition and burning them, and he urged the king to step up negotiations with the pro-union bishops. Skarga was the king's representative and chief Catholic theologian at the Synod of Brest in 1596 when the union was formally ratified, and worked tirelessly until his death in 1612 to promote the Catholic cause both among the Orthodox and the Protestants. See J. Tretiak, Skarga w dziejach i lieteraturze Unii brzeskie (Cracow, 1912).
81. Curiously, the first edition of Skarga's book itself is dedicated to Ostrozhskii, and in the Preface the author refers to conversations they had earlier on the subject. [Author's note].
82. See above, note 11.
83. Photinus of Sirmium was condemned in 345 as a modalist, or one who held that Father, Son and Holy Spirit are just three different expressions or operations of one God.
84. Paul of Samosata, bishop of Antioch from 260 to 268, professed a heretical theology stressing the unity of God to the point of modalism, and the humanity of Christ to the point of adoptionism (the belief that Jesus was an ordinary man whom God chose to be Christ).
85. See Chapter I, note 114.
86. Alberto Bolognetti was the papal nuncio to Poland from 1581 until his death in 1585.
87. Adam Pociej (d.1613), an influential nobleman and the castellarte of Brest, grew up as a Calvinist and only later joined the Orthodox Church. He took the monastic name Hypatius and became bishop of Brest and Vladimir in 1593. Shortly afterward, at a secret meeting at Torczyn in 1594, he declared himself in favor of union with Rome and began to work closely with another bishop, Terletskii (see riote 108), in promoting the union among the rest of the Orthodox clergy in Lithuania. On June 1, 1595 he signed a formal message to King Sigismund III announcing that he and several other bishops were ready to enter into communion with Rome, and in the fall of that year he travelled to Rome with Terletskii to present the union to Pope Clement VIII. In 1599 he was elevated to Uniate metropolitan of Kiev. A biography of Pociej by I. Savicky appears in Jubilejna kniha v 300-Iitni rokovini smerti Mitropolita Jpatiya Potiya (Lvov, 1914), pp. 1-133.
88. The Confessio Sandomiriensis was the product of a synod held in 1570 as a project of Protestant unification. The Confessio remained, however, the creed of only the Calvinists and the Czech (Bohemian) Brethren. The synod also drew up the so-called Consensus Sandomiriensis, which was a pledge to struggle against both Anti-Trinitarians and Roman Catholics.
89. Ostrozhskii's letter to the Synod of Torun inviting the Protestants to, join the opposition to the Union of Brest, also spoke even of an armed uprising. His letter is in Russkaia istoricheskaia biblioteka, XIX, 642-654.
90. Incidentally, in the time of Sigismund II Augustus (1548-1572) negotiations with "those of different faiths" were part of the iberal Catholic program. [Author's note.]
91. For Turnovskii's description of his journey to Sandomierz in 1570 see K.E.J. Joerensen, Okumenische Besfrebungen unter den polnischen Protestanten (Copenhagen, 1942), 261.
92. See above, note 70.
93. Meletius Pigas (d. 1601) was quite active in opposing attempts at union with the Roman Catholic Church both in Lithuania and on the island of Chios. The basic work on him remains I. Malishevskii, Aleksandriiskii Patriarkh Meletii Pigas i ego uchastvie v delakh russkoi tserkvi (Kiev, 1872), 2 vols.
94. On the Council of Constance, see above, note 5. The Council of Basel was convened in 1631 to correct various monetary abuses among the Roman Catholic hierarchy. Pope Eugene IV moved it to Ferrara in 1437 (see Chapter I note 52) but the conciliarist party at the council rebelled, deposing the Pope and sending their own fleet to Constantinople to get the Greeks' participation in a project of union. The Greeks, however, chose to go with the papal tleet to the Council of Ferrara-Florence, and the representatives at the Council of Basel finally recognized the reigning Pope Nicholas V and disbanded in 1449.
95. Marco Antonio de Dominis' book was published in 1617 and asserted that the Pope was only 'primus inter pares [first among equals] with no jurisdiction over other bishops.
96. Broriski was twice sent as ambassador to the Khan of Crimea. These visits inspired his valuable Descriptio Tataria (Colloniae Agripp 1585). [Author's note.] There is a Russian edition of this book, "Opisanie Kryma," in Zapiski Odesskago obshchestva istorii i drevnostei (Odessa, 1867), vol. IV.
97. Casimir Nesetskii's celebrated Book of Heraldry [Gerbovnik] mentions Bronski 9n flattering terms. [Author's note.]
98. The Apokrisis is known to have existed in at least two versions the original Polish and an adaption for West Russia. Bronski later went over to the Unia. [Author's note.]
99. The Instituriones Cbristianiae, the famous compendium of Calvinist theology was first printed at Basel in 1536 and revised and expanded until Calvin's death in 1559. See J. Calvin, Institutes of tbe Christian Religion, translated by F.L. Battles and edited by J.T. McNeill (Philadelphia, 1960), 2 vols.
100. Sigrandus Lubbertus (1556-1625), a strict Calvinist and follower of Beza, was a prolific writer who struggled against Catholics and Socinians.
101. Meletii Smotritskii (1578-1633) was educated both at the Orthodox school of Ostrog and the Jesuit college at Vilna. He was made Orthodox bishop of Polotsk in 1620 but was so severly persecuted by the Polish authorities that he was forced to take refuge with the Ukrainian Cossacks until he finally went over to the Unia in 1627. In the book cited here he deplored the current state of the Orthodox Church caused by the desertion of almost all the wealthy and influential Orthodox nobles. Smotritskii also published a grammar of Church Slavonic in 1619.
102. Zizani's treatise was included in a collection known as the Kirillova kniga (1644), which was quite popular in the 17th century in Moscow, where, of course, it was not known that the arguments originated from a Calvinist source. [Author's note.] Stephen Zizani was a teacher at the brotherhood schools in Lvov (where he was later rector) and Vilna. A vigorous opponent of the union, he published a book entitled The Roman Church in 1596, for which he was condemned as a heretic by the pro-Union synod of Brest in that same year. In 1599, at the instigation of the Uniate bishop Pociej he was banished from Vilna by King Sigismund III's order, and his subsequent fate is unknown.
103. Vladimir Peretts (1870-1936) was a noted Russian literary historian.
104. The Octoechos, or "book of eight tones," contains eight sets of special hymns used in a weekly cycle in the services of the Orthodox Church.
105. The Horologion is a service book containing the offices of the Hours, Typical Psalms, and the readers' and singers' parts of various other services.
106. Vishenskii's writings have been reproduced in Akty iuzhnoi i zapadnoi Rossii (St. Petersburg, 1865), II, 205-207.
107. Metropolitan Makarii (1816-1882) was a distinguished l9th century Russian historian and theologian, and was made metropolitan of Moscow in 1879. His main work is a thirteen volume Istoriia russkoi tserkvi (St. Petersburg, 1889-1903).
108. On Pociej, see above, note 87. Kirill Terletskii (d. 1607) was the Orthodox bishop of Lutsk. When Patriarch Jeremiah II of Constantinople passed through West Russia (see below), he appointed Terletskii his exarch and instructed him to call regular synods of the local episcopate. Terletskii, however, used these synods to make arrangements for the union with Rome, beginning with a meeting in Brest in 1590, just one year after Jeremiah's visit.
109. Nicephorus was Patriarch Jeremiah's vicar when the latter died in 1594, and had managed to maintain some measure of authority in the anarchy that followed in Constantinople. He was imprisoned as a spy (at the request of the Polish government) on his way through Wallachia, but Ostrozhskii managed to secure his release so he could preside over the Orthodox council. There was some question as to whether he had the power to do so, as the patriarchal see in Constantinople was vacant at the time. Cyril Lucaris, however, Patriarch Pigas' representative, who was certainly aware of the situation in Constantinople, deferred to him, and Pigas himself confirmed his decisions a year later. Early in 1598 Nicephorus was arrested by the Polish police as a Turkish spy and executed.
110. Luke of Belgrade had as one of his goals financial support.
111. Gedeon Balaban (d. 1607), the bishop of Lvov, was actually one of the first Orthodox bishops in West Russia to come out in favor of the union, signing pro-union declarations in Brest in 1590 and in Sokal in 1594. His name also appears on the June 1595 declaration that Pociej and Terletskii brought to Rome. By this time, however, he had renounced the idea of union and in July of that year he filed a formal protest in a local court charging that he had signed a blank piece of paper on which Terletskii was supposed to list complaints against the Polish government's oppression of the Orthodox Church. Thereafter he was a leading opponent of the Uniate Church and was named Meletius Pigas' exarch in 1597.
112. Mikhail Kopystenskii (d. 1610) was the bishop of Peremyshl, and was also an early supporter of the union who later became a leader of the Orthodox opposition.
113. He was actually a subject of the Ottoman empire, with which Poland had been on bad terms for some time. [Author's note.]
114. The Black Sea steppes had been left desolate from the Tatar devastations of the l3th and l4th centuries and it was to this region, beyond the control of governments, noblemen and landlords, that downtrodden peasants began to migrate in the late l5th century to carve a free life for themselves. These people, known as "Cossacks," were forced to organize into armed bands to defend their freedom against roving Tatar groups, and grew in strength and numbers through- out the l6th century. In the 1550's they built a fortress in the Zaporozhian ("below the rapids") region of the lower Dnieper River which became an early center of their military activity. Soon they became a potent military force, gaining mastery of the steppes against the Tatars and Turks, and a potent social force as well, setting up camps on noble estates in Lithuania and attracting the oppressed peasantry to their numbess. The Polish-Lithuanian government continually tried to subdue them, either by direct military action which met with some successes but never resulted in their ultimate submission, or by enlisting them in the services of their own foreign policy, which always backfired because the Polish government was never able to keep their promises to pay the Cossacks and respect their freedom. Because these Zaporozhian Cossacks were occasionally in the service of the kings of Poland they called themselves "knights," and because of the democratic social organization of their group they termed their army as a whole a "fellowship." For a good general account of the rise and the activities of the Cossacks see M. Hrushevskii, A History of the Ukraine (New Haven, 1941), 144-461.
115. Patriarch Jeremiah of Constantinople (d. 1594) passed through West Russia in 1586 on his way to Moscow, where he came to seek funds and ended up establishing the Moscow patriarchate, and again in 1588-89 on his return trip. The Polish authorities were unusually friendly to him, probably because they felt he himself was inclined towards union, but also because the papal nuncio Bolognetti and the Jesuit Possevino had earlier concocted a scheme to have Jeremiah move his see to either Kiev, Lvov or Vilna, where he would be under Roman influence. For the Catholic attitude to Jeremiah's journey see O. Halecki, From Florence to Brest (1439-1596J, pp. 213-235.
116. Korolevskie privilei. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a loose confederation of "lands," and it was customary for the Grand Prince to guarantee the far reaching autonomy of these smaller principalities by privilei, or special "charters." This practice was then extended to the btotherhoods.
117. Theophanes was also on his way to Moscow to seek funds when he was asked by the Orthodox clergy in Kiev to consecrate a metropolitan and five other bishops for them. This time the CathoHc authorities were extremely hostile, but the Orthodox Cossacks had achieved virtual mastery over the Kievan region and gave Theophanes their protection and a military escort in and out of the country.
118. Filaret was patriarch of Moscow from 1619 to 1633 and his son, Mikhail Romanov (1613-1645) was the first tsar of the Romanov dynasty, which lasted until 1917. Together they restored order in Russia after the "Time of Troubles."
119 Sagadaichny (d. 1622) had distinguished himself in leading sea raids against the Turks, sacking the suburbs of Constantinople on a number of occasions. He also led an expedition into Muscovy in 1618 which almost succeeded in taking Moscow itself. Through his military endeavors and also his diplomacy - keeping the Polish army at bay by agreeing to give in to their demands but stalling until the government needed his help - he was able to achieve Cossack mastery of the Ukraine. A firm Orthodox Christian and supporter of the Orthodox schools and the Kievan brotherhood, Sagadaichny's protection against the hostile Polish-Catholic authorities was invaluable for the revival of the Orthodox Church in West Russia.
120. Iov Boretskii (d. 1631) was an expert in Greek and Latin, as well as in the Church Fathers. Among his more noted works were Anthologion (a translation of Greek liturgical texts), (Kiev, 1619), and Apolliia apologia Meletiia Smotritskago (Kiev, 1628).
121. See above, note 101.
122. Kurtsevioh (d. 1626) was consecrated bishop of Vladimir in Volyrua. After he was made bishop, the Polish authorities, who did not recognize any of these consecrations, threatened to imprison him, and Kurtsevich was forced to flee to Muscovy, where he spent the last year of his life as the archbishop of Suzdal'.
123. The Orthodox representatives at the electoral diet in 1632 were strong enough to force Sigismund's son, Wtadyslaw IV (1632-1648), to recognize the Orthodox metropolitanate of Kiev and four other episcopal sees, and to divide the church properties and monasteries between the Orthodox and the Uniates.
124. The Greek colony Nezhin, in the district of Chernigov, actually dates from this period. [Author's note.]
125. In later years Arsenius moved to Muscovy, receiving a bishopric first in Tver'. and then in Suzdal'. [Author's note.] Patriarch leremiah of Constantinople had been deposed by the Turks in 1585, and his rival, Theoleptus II, who held the patriarchal throne from 1585 until Jeremiah's return to the patriarchate in 1586, had sent two emissaries to Moscow to solicit funds to satisfy the ever-present demands of the Turks. Arsenius was one of these emissaries. On his return trip he was informed that Theoleptus was out of power and he decided to remain in Lvov, where Jeremiah stopped on his way to Moscow. After conferring with him on the situation in Muscovy, Jeremiah decided to bring his former pupil along with him, and thus Arsenius made a second journey before moving there for good. He wrote an account of his travels in Greek, which was published with a Latin translation in Paris in 1749.
126. Constantine Lascaris (1434-1501) was a member of a former Byzantine imperial family. When Constantinople fell to the Turks in 1453 Lascaris fled to Italy, where he taught Greek at schools in Milan, Rome and Naples. His grammar, the Erotomata or Grammatica Graeca sive compendium octo orationis partium, published in 1476, was the first book ever printed in the Greek language and was highly intluential among European humanists.
127. Philipp Melanchthon (1497-1560), the great reformer who led the Protestant movement in Germany after the death of his friend Martin Luther, was the principal author of the Augsburg Confession. One of the leading European humanists and among the first to promote the study of Greek, he received the title "Preceptor of Germany" for his role in education. Melanchthon's Institutiones Graeca Grammatica was published in 1519.
128. Martin (Kraus) Crusius, a professor of Greek at Tabingen around 1555, was one of the very few scholars to take an interest in the contemporary Greek theologians and clergy. See his Germanograecia (Basel, 1585), and his Turco-Graeciae, libri octo (Basel, 1584).
129. Clenard (or Clenardus, 1495-1542) wrote both Greek and Hebrew grammars, which served as standard texts in many universities.
130. Pletenetskii (c. 1550-1624), a minor Galician noble, became abbot of the Monastery of the Caves [Pecherskaia Lavraj in 1599, and spent his first fifteen years there putting the monastery on solid ground both spiritually and financially. Then, with the indispensable aid of the Cossacks under his like-minded friend Hetman Sagadaichny (see note 119), he was able to begin a great cultural revival in Kiev, the intluence of which was felt for centuries in Ukrainian history.
131. This was the press which Ivan Fedorov (see above, note 51) had left in arrears when he died in Lvov in 1583. It was redeemed from local Jewish merchants by Bishop Gedeon Balaban and put to use by the Lvov brotherhood.
132. Pamvo Berynda (d. 1632), poet, translator, printer and a former member of the brotherhood in Lvov, was brought to Kiev in 1615 by Pletenetskii.
133. Leo Krevsa was Uniate archbishop of Smolensk from 1625 to 1639.
134. St. Andrew of Crete (c. 660-740) is known in the Orthodox Church primarily for his "Great Canon" read during the Lenten fast. His works are in Patrologia Graeca 97, 805-1443.
135. See below, Chapter III, section IV.
136. See above, note 61.
37. The word "Order" is not an eastern term. Though Orthodox, St. Basil's communal rule is designed more for an outward, militant organization; the Studite rule is aimed at inward, solitary piety. [Author's note.] St. Basil (see Chapter I, note 41) never composed a formal rule in the western sense of the word. His Asceticon, a series of questions and answers on monasticism, expressed his idea of monasticism as a communal life with emphasis on charity and liturgical prayer, as opposed to the life of the anchorite. When St. Theodore took over the Studion monastery (see Chapter I, note 20), he added to the communal organization there Palestinian traditions of continual, ascetic prayer, and it is this tradition of monastic life whicn spread to Ivlt. Athos and subsequenuy to Russia.
138. Tarasii Zemka (d. 1632) was a noted preacher and hieromonk of the Monastery of the Caves. He edited a Triodion (a service book containing hymns and prayers for Great Lent) which was published at Kiev in 1627.
139. Gabriel Severus (d. 1616) was the metropolitan of Philadelphia and the head of the Greek church in Venice. He had studied at the University of Padua and his Brief Tract on the Holy Sacraments made free of use of Latin scholastic arguments to combat the Protestants.
140. Kirill Trankvillion-Stavrovetskii (d. after 1646) had taught Greek at the brotherhood school in Lvov before coming to the Monastery of the Caves, and later was archimandrite at the Assumption Monastery in Chernigov. His Uchitel noe Evangelie was actually reprinted in 1668 and again in 1696.
141. See above, note 87.
142. Harmonia, albo concordantia viary, sakramentow y ceremoniy Cerkvi S. Orientalniey z Kosciolem s. Rzymskim (Vilna, 1608). [Author's note.]
143. For a time Arcudius was active in Poland. [Anthor's note.] Peter Arcudius, a Greek native of the island of Corfu, was the first gtaduate of the Greek College of St. Athanasius in Rome. He went from Rome to Poland in order to promote the Unia by attempting to convince the Orthodox that their rite would suffer no alteration after the union. See E. Legrand, Bibiiographie hellenique du XVII siecle (Paris, 1895), III, 209-232.
144. Leo Allatius was another graduate of the College of St. Athanasius. In his later years he collected Greek and Syrian manuscripts for Pope Gregory XV's Eastern Library in the Vatican.
145. Meletius Pigas had studied in Augsburg. [Author's note.]
146. See above, note 80.
147. From the Foreword to his translation of Chrysostom's Homilies on St. Paul, Besed loanna Zlatousta na poslanie Ap. Pavla (Kiev, 1623). [Author's note.]
148. This practice was also followed by Peter Mogila. [Author's note.]
149. "Hospodar" was an honorary title given to governors in Moldavia appointed by the Ottoman Porte.
150. Jan Zamoyski (d. 1605) was the most powerful and influential statesman in Poland, and the chief negotiator between the pro-union bishops of West Russia and the Polish crown in the early discussions which led to the Union of Brest. On the history of the Zamosc Academy, to which many young Orthodox nobles were sent, see J.K. Kochanowski, Dzieje Akademii Zamojskiej (Cracow, 1899-1900).
151. Stanislaw Zolkiewski was the illustrious commander-in-chief of the Polish armies in the late l6th and early l7th centuries who devastated the Cossack forces around the turn of the century and led a highly successful expedition into Muscovy in 1610, capturing the boyas Tsar Vasilii Shuiskii. He died in 1620 fighting the Turks.
152. John Charles Chodkiewicz, of the family which had earlier given Ivan Fedorov refuge, commanded the Lithuanian armies in the war with Sweden (1601-1606), suppressed the rebellious Polish gentry in 1606, invaded Muscovy with Zolkiewski in 1610, and also died in battle against the Turks in 1621.
153. Gavril Dometskoi was educated at the Kiev Academy and died in Kiev before 1725, but his role in Russian Church history was played out in Muscovy. As abbot of the Danilovskii monastery in Moscow and later as archimandrite in the Simonovskii monastery he became thoroughly embroiled in the late l7th century controversies between the Graeco-Slavonic and Latin parties siding with Medvedev's western leaning faction (these controversies are discussed in the next chapter, section V). Dometskoi was also involved in similar controversies in Novgorod. Cf. Russkii biograficheskii slovar' (Moscow, 1914), IV, pp. 36-37.
154. As quoted by Silvestr Kossov. [Author's note.] Silvestr Kossov (d. 1657) was a student at the Kiev Academy whom Peter Mogila sent to Polish colleges as well. He also taught in the Kiev Academy before becoming bishop of Mstislavl. On Mogila's death in 1647 Kossov succeeded him as metropolitan of Kiev. His works, written in both Russian and Polish, are discussed below, section VIII.
155. Isaia Kozlovskii (d. 1651), who taught for a while at the brotherhood school in Lvov, was brought to Kiev by Mogila in 1631. He soon became abbot of the Pustino-Nikolaevskii Monastery in Kiev and assisted Mogila in his educational activities throughout West Russia.
156. It was later transferred to the Goshchi or Hoszczy monastery in Volynia. [Author's note.]
157. Cf. the Polish order of the Piarists, "Ordo Piarum Scholarum." [Author's note.] The "Order of the Poor Clerics Regular of the Mother of God of the Pious Schools" was established in Rome in 1597 by Joseph Calasanctius (1556- 1648). Its purpose was to provide a free Catholic education for children, and the order spread rapidly enough for the Piarists to found their own colleges.
158. Joseph Dobrovskii (1753-1829) was a Bohemian Jesuit and philologist who did extensive studies on Slavic languages. Among his important works are Scriptores rerum bohemicarurji (Prague, 1783-4); Cyrillus and Metbodius, der Slawen Apostel (Prague, 1823); and Institutiones Linguae Slavonicae dialicti veteris (Vienna, 1822).
159. Smotritskii's grammar of Church Slavonic, modelled after Lascaris' Greek grammar, also served as a model for a succession of Russian grammars including that of Lomonosov. See E.S. Prokoshina, Meletii Smotritskii (Minsk, 1966). The complete title of Smotritskii's grammar is Grammatika slavenskaia pravilnoe sintagma po tshchaniem mnogogreshnago mnikha Meletiia Smotritskago (Vilna, 1619).
160. Iosafat Kuntsevich (1580-1623) organized the Uniate Basilian order of monks along with Veliamin Rutskii. Kuntsevich was murdered in an anti-union riot in Vitebsk in 1623, and is a saint of the Western Church.
161. Iov Boretskii, see above.
162. Isaia Kopinskii (d. 1640) had taught in the Ostrog school oefore becoming a monk in Kiev, where he distinguished himself by reorganizing several monastic communities. In 1620 he was consecrated bishop of Peremyshl by Patriarch Theophanes, but being unable to take possession of his see because of Polish harassment, he withdrew to Smolensk and directed his diocese from there. Onthe death of Iov Boretskii in 1631 Kopinskii became metropolitan of Kiev. Soon afterwards, however, with the legalization of the Orthodox Church in 1632, Peter Mogila also claimed the see of Kiev, and with the help of the Polish police he imprisoned Kopinskii in the Mikhailovskii Monastery. Kopinskii was given the direction of this monastery in 1634 when he promised not to act against Mogila, but he left Kiev in 1635 and spent the rest of his days in obscurity in various monasteries in Muscovy. See below.
163. Ieremia Tisarovskii (d. 1641 ) was a member of the Orthodox gentry. On the death of Gedeon Balaban in 1607 Tisarovskii was able to succeed him as Orthodox bishop of Lvov by promising to join the Unia. However, once he was made bishop he reneged on his promise, and after Mikhail Kopystenskii's death in 1610 he was the sole Orthodox bishop in all West Russia until Theophanes' consecrations in 1620. Finally, probably because he was willing.to participate in Mogila's consecration, Tisarovskii was confirmed in his see in 1632 by the Polish government.
164. Polish police arrested him and put him in prison. [Author's note.]
165. See above, section IV.
166. For an analysis of Mogila's Confession see the following section.
167. Afanasii (d. 1650) was himself a former Uniate. He is the author of a description of the Lutsk sobor of 1633, in Silvestr Kossov's Didaskalia (1638).
168. Sakovich, former rector of the brotherhood school in Kiev (see above, section V), had not only gone over to the Unia, but at the end of his life had become a firm Western Catholic, polemicizing against both Orthodox and Uniates.
169. Attributed to Mogila but probably, like his Confession, a composite work. [Author's nofe.]
170. In his reform work it seems that Mogila utilized a Croatian translation of the Roman Ritual made by the Dalmatian Jesuit Kasic and published in 1637. It is likely that the whole liturgical project of Peter Mogila was in some manner connected with the Illyrian Uniate movement, from whose circles there later appeared the enigmatic pan-Slav missionary Jurai Krizanic. [Author's note.] Bartol Kasic (1575-1650) also composed a Croation grammar for students in Rome. Jurai Krizanic (1617-1683) was educated in Jesuit circles in Rome. In 1647 he was sent on an unsuccessful mission to convert the Russians to Catholicism, after which he returned to Rome and wrote several treatises on the Russians and the Orthodox Church. Then, in 1659,' Kriz'anic left for the Ukraine with no official permission and travelled incognito on to Moscow, where he worked as a translator at the tsar's court. He was discovered in 1661 and exiled to Siberia, where he wrote a grammar for a proposed pan-Slavic language and an appeal to the tsar to unite all Slavic peoples in a common struggle against the Germans. In 1676 Krizanic was released and returned to Poland, wheie he served as a chaplain in the Polish army until his death in the Turkish siege of Vienna.
171. The viaticum, Latin for "provision for a journey," is the Eucharist given to the dying, more commonly known as "last rites."
172. The Ordo commendationis ad animae exitum de corpore or "Office of prayers for the separation of soul and body," are read over the body of the deceased immediately after a person dies.
173. The rite of Passias is an evening service celebrated during great Lent which contains a Gospel reading pertaining to Christ's passion.
174. The Office of Propaganda [Propaganda Fide] Was founded during the pontificate of Gregory XV (1621-1623) as a central organization for the direction of all missionary work in the Roman Church. Ingoli (1578-1649), a priest from Ravenna, was its first secretary.
175. See above, note 155.
176. As early as 1628 from West Russia, Smotritskii, in his Apologia had questioned the views of Lucaris, with which he had become acquainted through the Katekhizis and personal conversation. [Author's note.]
177. Meletius Syrigos (d. 1667), a philosophy professor in Constantinople, exarch of the ecumenical patriarch and religious adviser to the Moldavian Prince Basil Lupul (see note 180), was one of the most learned men of his time. There is a biography of him by a contemporary, Patriarch Dositheus (see below note 200), in E. Legrand, Bibliographie Hellenique du XVII siecle (Paris, 1894), II.470-472. See also J. Pargoire, "Meletios Syrigos, sa vie et ses oeuvres Echos d' Orient (Constantinople, 1909), vol. XII, nos. 74, 76, 78, and 79. On his editing of Mogila's Confession, see below.
178. Mogila apparently accepted the Roman Catholic doctrine of the immediate entry into Paradise of the souls of the saints.
179. Creationism is the belief that the soul is created by God and infused into the fetus at the moment of conception.
180. Basil Lupul, ruler of Moldavia from 163a to 1653, was responsible for a broad cultural revival in his homeland founding many schools, including an academy at Iasi where he also established a printing press. An extremely wealthy man, he personally financed the operations of the patriarchate of Constantinople and presided over the council at Iasi in the ancient manner of the Byzantine emperors. See S. Runciman, The Great Ckurch in Captivity (Cambridge, 1968), pp. 341-343.
181. Porphyrius (d. 1652) was sent to this assembly by Patriarch Parthenius I, who held the see of Constantinople from 1638 to 1642, and Meletius Syrigos was sent by the new patriarch, Parthenius II.
182. Metropolitan Varlaam (c. 1590-1657) was the head of the Orthodox Church in Moldavia and the executor of the educational and publishing projeots financed by Basil Lupul.
183. Oksenovich (d. 1650) was a professor and rector of the Kiev collegium, and a noted preacher. Shortly before his death he was elected bishop of Mstislavl.
184. Kononovich (d. 1653) served as the head of several monasteries in Kiev before becoming bishop of Mogilev in 1650.
185. The full title was Zebranie krotkiey nauki o artykulach wiary prawoslawno katholickiey chrzescianskiey. [Author's note.]
186. Varlaam Iasinskii lived at a time when the Ukraine was politically divided between Poland and Russia, and the clergy was divided between allegiance to the patriarch of Constantinople and submission to the patriarch of Moscow. Varlaam himself, who was educated at the Kiev collegium and also at the Catholic Academy of Cracow, and served as rector of the Kiev collegium and abbot of the Monastery of the Caves, wanted to remain under the Ecumenical Patriarch. Therefore, when the patriarch of Moscow offered to consecrate him metropolitan of Kiev in 1686, Varlaam refused to go to Moscow for his elevation and likewise refused to recognize Metropolitan Gedeon, who was consecrated in his place. However, after the patriarch of Constantinople ceded the jurisdiction of Kiev to Moscow in 1687, Varlaam finally agreed to succeed Gedeon and was consecrated metropolitan of Kiev, Galicia, and all Little-Russia in 1690 in Moscow.
187. Adrian (1690-1700) was the last patriarch of Moscow before Tsar Peter's restructuring of the Russian Orthodox Church (see Chapter IV). Akeady old and feeble when he became patriarch, Adrian was able to accomplish little more than strengthening Peter's resolve to do away with the patriarchate by interceding on behalf of the streltsy who revolted in 1698.
188. Cf. A.S. Zernova, Knigi kirillovskoi pechati izdannye v Moskve v XYI-XYIII vekakh (Moscow, 1958), no. 215, 69. A compreherisive work giving tne full text can be found in A. Malvy and M. Viller, La Confession orthodox de Pierre Moghila, Orientalia Christiana (Rome, 1927), X, 39.
189. The Catechismus Romanus, or Catechismus ex decretis Concilii tridentini ad parochos, first appeared in 1566 and was a product of the decree of the Council of Trent (see note 196) that Catholic doctrine be clarified and defined in the face of the spread of Protestant heresies. Intended primarily as a reference book for Catholic pastors, it proved immensely popular and was almost immediately translated into all major European languages.
190. Peter Canisius (1521-1597) was the first Jesuit to engage himself in scholarly activities. He worked mainly on behalf of the Counter-Reformation in Germany, where he helped set up several Jesuit colleges.
191. Petrus (or Pedro) De Soto (1500-1563) entered into Spain the Order of Friars PreacheIs. As a student, his main interest was patrology and the councils of the Church. In 1542 Charles V of Spain made him his adviser and confessor. He restored and held the chair of theology (1549-1553) at the University of Dillingen. De Soto was later appointed Pope Pius IV's theologian at the Council of Trent. He died while attending the council. He authored several theological works. See A. Turon, Histoir des hommes illustres de 1'ordre de Saint Dominique, 6 v. (Paris, 1743-1749), vol. 4, 216-230.
192. Bellarmine also worked on the commission which produced the Sixtus-Clementine Vulgate. His Disputationes, a synthesis of both Catholic and Protestant theology, was written while Bellarmine was teaching at a school for missionaries in Rome.
193. See above, note 143.
194. The sacrament of anointing the sick, or "the oil of prayer " has two functions: bodily healing, and forgiveness of sins. It is not an Orthodox belief however, that anointment always results in a recovery of health. In the Roman Catholic Church ultima unctio, or "extreme unction," is intended only for the dying; Orthodox unction can be administered to any who are sick. See TimothyWare, The Orthodox Church (Battimore, 1967), p. 303.
195. The Portugese Jesuit Emmanuel Alvarius published a grammar in 1572 under the title De institutione grammatica libri tres (the three books being Etymology, Syntax and Prosody). The grammar gained wide acceptance in Europe and a revised edition appeared in 1583.
196. The Council of Trent, the l9th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, was held in 25 sessions from 1545 to 1563. Its purpose was to reform the church for a struggle against the Protestant Reformation and to clarify what is essential and what is subject to discussion in Catholic doctrine. Among the Catholic teachings which stem from this council are the authority of tradition next to Scripture, the authenticity of the Vulgate the doctrine of justification and the numbering of seven sacraments. Among the ecclesiastical reforms produced by this council are stipulations that a bishop reside in his diocese and the promotion of education by increasing the number of seminaries and the production of a general catechism (the Catechismus Romanus). There is a critical text of the decrees of the council in G. Alberigo, Conciliorum oeucumenicorum decreta (New York, 1962), 633-775.
197. Lazar Baranovich (c. 1620-1693), poet, preacher, publisher and anti-Catholic polemist, had himself been rector of the Kievan college from 1650 to 1658. He became archbishop of Chernigov in 1657 and simultaneously supported political union with Russia and ecclesiastical independence from the Moscow patriarchate.
198. In his Uniate days, Iavorskii was known as Stanislaus. [Author's note.] On Iavorskii, see below in this section.
199. "Sunt multi monachi vel uniti, vel unioni proximi, plurimi de rebus nostris optime sentientes . . . . Kyoviae Unum totum monasterium est unitorum." From a letter written in 1699 by a Jesuit, Father Emilian, who was in Moscow at the time. [Author's note.]
200. Dositheus was patriarch of Jerusalem from 1669 to 1707, and during his long tenure he proved himself to be the most influential and respected figure in the entire Orthodox world. As a scholar he was known for his History of the Patriarchs of Jerusalem (Bucharest, 1715), which was actually a history of the entire Orthodox Church, as well as numerous editions of the Church Fathers, with which he was thoroughly familiar. As a polemist his chief work was the Enchiridion against the Errors of Calvinism (Bucharest, 1690). Although he also guarded carefully against Catholic influences in the Church, his opposition to the Protestants led him into the support of Mogila's Confession, for which he wrote a foreword in the Greek edition of 1699. Dositheus produced his own Confession (actually authored by four contemporary prelates, with the final editing done by Dositheus) which was approved by a synod in Jerusalem in 1672 and published a few years later at the famous press which he himself financed at Iasi: This Confession was, on the whole, free of the obvious Latin influences in Mogila's statement, and only resorted to Catholic terminology when defending the Orthodox doctrine of the Eucharist against the Protestants. See S. Runciman, The Great Church in Captivity, pp. 347-353.
201. Ossorius, bishop Jeronimo Osdrio, professor at the University of Coimbra. Author of several works, including biblical commentaries, was known as the "Portuguese Cicero." His "Postilla" was recommended to the clergy of Poland by two Synods of Vilno (1602 and 1613). [Fr. Janusz A. Ihnatowicz].
202. This is most probably a reference to Piotr Fabricius (1552-1622), whose original Polish name was Kowalski. A Jesuit (from 1570), he was a popular preacher and respected theologian. In 1608 he became the first native born provincial of Polish Jesuits. He translated The Imitation of Christ by Thomas a Kempis, as well as some works by Robert Bellarmine. There was another well-known Fabricius, Walenty, also a Jesuit (1563-1626), at one time a very popular preacher in Krakow. [Fr. Janusz A. Ihnatowicz].
203. See above, note 80.
204. Tomasz Mtodzianowski was a famous Jesuit theologian, canonist and preacher of the seventeenth century (1622-1686). He was widely travelled, including missionary work in Turkey (Smyrna) and Persia and the author of more than thirty Latin and Polish works. His sermons of high religious and literary quality put him on a level with Skarga. [Fr. Janusz A. Ihnatowicz].
205. See note 197.
206. Radivillovskii (d. before 1700) had been an archdeacon at the cathedral in Charnigov and abbot of the Pustino-Nikolaevskii Monastery in Kiev before coming to the Monastery of the Caves.
207. He was frequently paired with Zernikav because of the assumption that he, too, was born in Konigsberg. He was professor of philosophy at the Kiev collegium and later became archimandrite of the Monastery of the Caves. He also authored the Opus totius philosophiae (1645-47, extant only in manuscript form). It has, however, recently been argued that Gizel was a Ruthenian.
208. Samuil Mislavskii (1731-1796) was an instructor and rector of the Kiev collegium who became metropolitan of Kiev in 1783. He compiled a Latin grammar in 1765 which was long considered the best in the Russian language, and was known as a devoted follower of the Enlightenment ideals popular during the reign of Catherine the Great (1762-1796). Under their sway he reformed the curriculum of the academy to include such subjects as mathematics and geography.
209. Laurentius Surius (1522-1578), a Carthusian monk at Cologne, was one of the few western scholars to concern himself with spiritual works in the CounteReformational period.
210. The Menologion, a collection of the lives of 148 saints arranged according to the Church calendar. St. Symeon Metaphrastes (c. 900-984) was also known for his spiritual poems, sermons and letters.
211. The Bollandists are members of a Jesuit society organized in the l7th century by Jean Bolland for the scholarly study and publication of lives of saints.
212. Cornelius a Lapide (van der Steen, 1568-1637) was a professor of exegesis at Louvain and Rome. His commentaries on the Bible, with their abundant quotations from the Fathers, were highly popular in Roman Catholic theological circles. See T.W. Mossman, The Great Commentary of Cornelius a Lapide (London, 1881).
213. Martin Becan (1563-1624) was a Jesuit theologian and polemist. His chief works were Summa theologiae scholasticae (Mainz, 1612), 4 vol., and Controversia anglicana de potestate regis et pontificis (Mainz, 1612), in which he defended the morality of assassinating a king.
214. See his polemical Inquiry into the schismatic faith in Brynsk [Rozysk o raskol'nich'ei brynskoi vere, 1709]. [Author's note.]
215. Iavorskii's Kamen' very was completed in 1718, but was not published until 1728, after his death. There is a three volume edition of the book published in Moscow in 1841-42.
216. Tomas Malvenda (1566-1628) was a Spanish theologian and Hebrew scholar who, in addition to his treatise on the Antichrist, worked on corrections of liturgical texts for Pope Clement VIII and helped compile an Index for the Spanish Inquisition.
217. By the time Ivan Stepanovich Mazepa became hetman of the Ukraine east of the Dnieper River that titled signified little more than a military governor of a vassal state of Russia. During his rule Mazepa proved himself completely incapable of checking the gradual enserfment of the peasants and the creation of a new noble class of Cossack officers who took over the titles and privileges formerly held by their Polish masters which the Cossacks had fought against for over two centuries. Meanwhile, as a military leader Mazepa was compelled to lead his forces wherever Tsar Peter the Great ordered, fighting with Russia against the Turks and Tatars from 1695 to 1699 ana dfterwards against the Swedes. Finally, when Sweden invaded the Ukraine in 1708 Mazepa deserted Tsar Peter's troops, suffered defeat with the Swedes at the battle of Poltava in 1709, and died in the fall of that year. Mazepa's only real achievement, and a noteworthy one, was his patronage of Ukrainian religious and cultural life. He used the great wealth acquired from his office to finance churches, monasteries and schools, rebuilding the Monastery of the Caves in Kiev and erecting new facilities for the Kiev Academy.
218. As a point of fact, in the Roman Church at that time the teaching of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary was not a dogma, but an opinion of private piety sponsored by the lesuits and Franciscans, while resisted by the Dominicans. [Author's note.]
219. In the Orthodox Church "panagia" ["All-holy"] refers not to Mary's sinlessness in a juridical sense, but to her perfect obedience in accepting the Word of God, for which she is glorified and able to intercede for us. "Theotokos" ["Mother of God"] is actually a Christological term, related to the teaching that the two natures of Christ are united in one person, whom Mary gave birth to, and was confirmed by the Third Ecumenical Council at Ephesus in 431. On the Orthodox Church's veneration of Mary see the articles by Father Florovsky and Vladimir Losskii in E.L. Mascall, ed., The Mother of God (London, 1949).
220. Religious architecture was especially abundant, since Mazepa was an ardent builder. [Author's note.]