Τhe People Of God: Its Unity And Its Glory
The Father George Florovsky Memorial Lecture.
Α discussion of John 17:17-24 in the light of patristic thought
Unity in the Holy Spirit (Faith and the Sacraments).
The fact that Christ is present in the midst of His flock in every historical "now" evidently implies that the unity of the people is based, not οn an abstract agreement, but on a direct and personal relationship. This relationship is established through the Ηοly Spirit, by faith and in the Sacraments. "By one Spirit are we all baptized into one body" (1 Cor.l2:13)."We being many are one bread, and one body: for we are all partakers of that one bread" (l Cor.l0;17). "One body, and one Spirit... One Lord, one faith, one baptism" (Eph. 4:4-5). Thus, by faith and in the Sacraments, Christ assumes in the Holy Spirit our personal existence and permits us to be in communion with Him, i.e. to participate existentially in His οwn life. Ιn this sense the unity in the body of the Church is not a one-side unity, nor is it uncoditionally given, but it implies man's personal affirmation of the personal call of God. The personal involvment of Christ in human destiny calls for our personal existence to be incorporated into His body.
The reconstruction of human existence and the unity of the "new man" are realized at the personal level by the act of acceptance of the life of Christ and especially of the central fact of this unique life, i.e. the death and the resurrection. Therefore, in order to transmit into his οwη ego the unification realized in the Hypostasis of the incarnate Logos, man must accept existentially the άπαξ and for all event of Christ's death and resurrection. "...So many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ were baptized into His death. Therefore we are buried with Him by baptism into death: that as Christ was raised up from death by glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life" (Rom.6:3-4). Thus, through baptism, life and resurrection; which were achieved by Christ's voluntary death, are realized in the very existence of man. By going through the mystery of Christ's death and resurrection, every believer is clothed in Him. Obviously the death of the believer in baptism is a symbol and an immitation of real death. And although the death is not real but only an image, its consequences are those of a real transcendence of death. Here lies the mystery of the restoration of the human person and of its glory in the Church. Through imitation and a symbolic act man receives the gifts of the resurrection.
It is interesting to recall in this connection the point made by St.Symeon the New Theologian. Although St. Symeon follows the traditional teaching of the Fathers οn sacramental baptism and recognises it as an act of therapy, regeneration and renewal of man, he also speaks of a second baptism which he calls "baptism in the Holy Spirit". This second baptism is a stage in the christian life which insures and maintains the effect of the sacramental baptism. The second baptism affirms the uniqueness and significance of the first. It is, so to speak, a testimony to, or a continuous presence of the gifts provided by the sacramental baptisτn. As a matter of fact this second baptism is nothing other than that repentance which offers to the individual Christian a deeper understanding of his christian consciousness, and a greater awareness of Christ as Lord and Saviour(30). This baptism in the Ηοly Spirit presupposes the personal kenosis of the believer in repentance, and indeed it is the medium for the accomplishment in the Holy Spirit of his final goal, i.e. of deification.
"Display a worthy penitence", argues St. Symeon, "by means of all sorts of deeds and words, that you may draw yourselves the grace of the all-holy Spirit. For this Spirit, when He descends οn you, becomes like a pοοl of light to you, which encompasses you completely in an unutterable manner. As it regenerates you, it changes you from corruptible to incorruptible, from mortal to immortal, from sons of man into Sons of God and gods by adoption and grace"(31).
It is of special interest for our study here to look at the way in which St. Symeon connects baptism in the Spirit with the unity of the people of God. His exposition is basically a synthesis of New Testament material, and the unity of which we are speaking is presented as a trinitarian dwelling. Ιn order to clarify his position St. Symeon uses the image of the house, of the door of the house, and of the key to the door. The key to the door, he explains, is the Ηοly Spirit "because through Him and in Him we are first enlightened in mind. We are purified and illuminated with the light of knowledge; we are baptized from οn high and born anew (cf. Jn. 3:3-5) and made into children of God"(32). The door of the house is the Son Himself , "for, says He, Ι am the door: by me if any man enter in he shall be saved, and shall go in and out, and find pasture" (Jn.10:7,9)(33). Finally, the house itself is the Father. Christ spoke of this when he said "in my Father's house are many mansions" (Jn.l4:2)(34).
St. Symeon is here engaged in pointing out explicitly that participation in the divine glory is effected in and through the Holy Spirit. He uses this image in order to guide man to a deeper understanding of the significance of baptism in the Spirit. According to him the crucial thing to do is to understand that only in and through the Ηοly Spirit do we know God, do we become His children and partakers of His ineffable light. It is precisely this dwelling of the Holy Spirit in the human person which constitutes his divine adoption and inner transfiguration. It is within this context that we can understand Ρaul's words, "The Spirit Himself intercedes for us with sighs too deep for words" (Rom.8:26), and again, "God has given His Spirit in our hearts, crying, Abba, Father!" (Ga1.4:6).
Bearing what has been pointed out so far in mind we reach the conclusion that the Ηοly Spirit was sent to the world, in the name of the Son, to bear witness (Jn.l5:23), and to guide human persons to Him, and through Him to the Father of Lights. "Ιn theological terms", argues St. Symeon, "we use the term house of the Son, as we use it of the Father, for He says, "Thou, Ο Father, art in Me, and I in them, and they in Me, and I, Ο Father, in Thee, that we may be one" (cf.Jn. 17:21,23), together.with the Holy Spirit. He also says "Ι will live in them and move among them" (2 Cor. 6,16). "Ι and the Father will come and make our home with him" (Jn.14:23), through the Hοly Spirit"(35).
Nevertheless it is true that, not only in St. Symeon the New Theologian's trinitarian theology, but also in the entire patristic tradition, a strong conviction exists that the Holy Spirit effects the integrity of the divided human person and the restoration of disunited humanity. The Paraclete enters the world to be the unifying principle of the new kingdom, the one force which guides all believers to the one faith and the one Lord. Ιn fact, the Holy Spirit Himself is the enhypostasized kingdom(36), and He makes of the people a "royal priesthood" and "a holy nation" (1 Pet.2,9). Thus "men, women and children", to quote Maximus, "profoundly divided as to race, nation, language, manner of life, work, knowledge, honour, fortune... the Church recreates all of them in the Spirit. Το all equally she communicates a divine aspect. Αll receive from her a unique nature which cannot be broken asunder, a nature which nο longer permits one henceforth to take into consideration the many and profound differences which are their lot. Ιn that way all are raised up and united in a manner which is truly catholic. Ιn her none is in the least degree separated from the community, all are grounded, so to speak, in one another by the simple and indivisible power of faith"(37).
Life in the Holy Spirit presupposes faith ("He that believeth and is baptised shall be saved": Mark 16:16), co-exists with faith ("The Spirit Itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the children of God": Rom.8:16), and maintains faith ("Νο man can say that Jesus is the Lord, but by the Ηοly Spirit": 1 Cor.l2:13)(38). This means that the one faith of the people is an acceptance neither of certain metaphysical axioms, nor of a set of laws given to men for their moral betterment by a God who acts authoritatively behind the scene of human activity. Faith implies an existential agreement in the Ηοly Spirit. It is "a fruit of the Spirit" a charisma (Ga1.5:22), to which man responds in a deeply personal way. "Our faith, brethren", claim the Orthodox Patriarchs of the East in their famous Encyclical of 1848, "is neither from man nor by man"(39). And it is for precisely this reason that the people of God, as a whole possesses a spiritual sense which makes it a "defender of the faith"40.
It is very important to stress in connection with this that faith "by the Hοly Spirit" is not understood exclusively as a possession οn the individual level: rather, it finds its significance in the context of the ecclesiastical community. Ιn other words, personal faith is in absolute harmony with the faith of the Catholic Church. This means that the faith of each human individual in the one body of the Church becomes truly Orthodox when it is identified with the Catholic conscience of the Church, and is expressed as "consensus fidelium".
Life in the Holy Spirit, i.e. the life of persons who are bound together by one baptism, one faith and identity οf experience, is fulfilled in the eucharistic gathering. The eucharistic assembly is the concrete manifestation of the communion with God in Christ and in the Ηοly Spirit. It is the realisation, through the invocation of the Holy Spirit by the Church, of the one body. "When we are fed", points out Ν. Cabasilas, "with the most sacred Bread and do drink the most Divine Cup, we do partake of the same flesh and the same blood our Lord has assumed, and so we are united with Him Who was for us incarnate, and died, and rose again"(41).
The Eucharist is the transcendence of any division; it constitutes the restoration of the ancient sympony between God and man. Ιn it each participant exists as a person in communion both with God and with the other human parsons. By partaking of the bread and wine one becomes simultaneously both a communicant of the whole Christ, Who is "broken and not disunited", and a communicant of the entire Church. Or to put it better, in the Eucharist every human person becomes the totus Christus and the entire Church. Thus the bread of the Eucharist constitutes the central point of ecclesiastical unity. Ιndeed, the Eucharist is the historical realisation of Christ's words: "Ι in them, and Thou in me, that they may be made perfect in one" (Jn.17:23). The bread being eaten by man in his fallen condition, "in the sweat of his face" (Gen.3:19) shows, and in fact maintains his isolation and individuality. Ιn contrast to this the eucharistic bread, by the power of the Ηοly Spirit, maintains the unity of human persons in Christ.
"The glory which you have given me, Ι have given to them".
When we stress the fact that the Holy Spirit creates unity in Christ, and when we attend to understand this unity in terms of a relationship we come again to the crucial point of the entrance and dwelling of the Holy Spirit in the human reality. The Ηοly Spirit's permeation of the ecclesiastical body constitutes the glory and the kingship of the people, since the Holy Spirit Itself is Kingship and Glory. Ιn His prayer for unity Christ stresses His relationship with the Spirit, and the fact that His relationship with the Father can be reproduced by the Spirit, in an analogous way, in the lives of those who follow Him. "The glory Thou gavest me Ι have given them; that they may be one, even as we are οne" (Jn.I7:22). "Christ's οwn glory", points out St. Gregory of Nyssa, "is meant to be the Holy Spirit which He has given to His disciples by breathing upon them, for what is scattered cannot otherwise be united unless joined together by the Holy Spirit's unity". Thus Christ, by the Holy Spirit, bestows His own life οn the lives of all who are willing and able to receive Him. Christ can be reached οnly through the Spirit.,"Anyone who does not have the Spirit does not belong to Him" (Rom.8:9). The Spirit is glory, as Christ Himself pointed out when He was addressing His Father: "Glorify me with the glory which Ι had with you before the world was made" (Jn.17:5). When St. Gregory of Nyssa comments οn this passage from John, he makes the following clarification: "The Logos is God Who has the Father's glory. But because in these last days He became flesh, it was necessary for the flesh to become what the Logos ever was (that is, to become divine) by uniting itself to Him. And precisely this was effected when the flesh received that which the Logos had before the world was made. And this is none other than the Ηοly Spirit, that same Ηοly Spirit existing before the ages together with the Father and the Son"(42).
If we read Christ's statement, "the glory which yοu have given me, Ι have given to them, that they may be one", in this hermeneutical context, we can easily understand where the ultimate criterion of the oneness of the people lies. The mystery of Christian existence and fellowship is based οn and connect with the personal and dynamic presence in the ecclesiastical body of the "heavenly King", "the Lord, the giver of life". "Νοw the Lord is that Spirit: and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty. But we all, with open face beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord" (2 Cor.3:17-1g)(43).
30. Discourses, ΧΧΧΙΙ, 77-84. Sources Chretiennes, 113, ed. by Β. Krivocheine, p. 244.
31. Discources, ΧΧΧΙΙ, 78-85. Op.cit., p. 244. The English translation is taken from "St. Symeon the New Theologian". The Classics of Western Spirituality, transl. by C.J. de Catanzaro, New York 1980, p. 337.
32. Discourses, ΧΧΧΙΙΙ, 153-157, p. 260. Transl. by C.J. de Catanzaro, p. 343. See also, ibid., 97-99, p. 256. Transl. p. 341.
33. Ibid., 95-96, p. 256. Transl. p. 341.
34. Ibid., 100-101, p. 256. Transl. 341-342.
35. Ibid., 160-176, pp. 260-262. Transl. p. 343 (This passage is mistranslated into English).
36. "Βασιλεία ζώσα και ουσιώδης και ενυπόστατος το Πνεύμα το Άγιον" Gregory of Nyssa, Adversus Macedonianos, ed. F.Mueller, p. 102, 27- 30. PG 45, 1321Α.
37. Mystagogy, Ι, PG 91, 665-8. Quotted by V. Lossky, The Mystical Theology of the Eastern Church, Plymouth 1957, pp.164-165.
38. "...η ομολογία της του Υιού Κυριότητος, εν Πνεύματι Αγίω τοις καταλαμβάνουσι γίνεται, πάντοθεν τοις διά πίστεως προσεγγίζουσι προαπαντώντος του Πνεύματος. . . αλλά χρη την εις τον Κύριον προϋποκείσθαι πίστιν, δι' ης η ζωτική χάρις τοις πιστεύσασι παραγίνεται... Αλλ' επειδή και η διά του Υιού διακονουμένη χάρις ήρτηται της αγεννήτου πηγής, διά τούτο προηγείσθαι την εις το όνομα του Πατρός πίστιν ο λόγος διδάσκει, του ζωογονούντος τα πάντα". Gregory of Nyssa, Adversus Macedonianos, ed. F. Mueller, pp.103,8-106, S.ΡG 45, 1321B-1325Α.
39. J.N. Karmiris, The Dogmatic and Symbolic Monuments of the Orthodox Catholic Church, ΙΙ, Graz 1968, p. 1002.
40. Ibid., p. 1000.
41. De Vita in Christo, IV, 3, 4, 6.
42. Ιn Illud..., PG 44, 1320D. See also Adversus Macedonianos, pp. 108,30-109,15. PG 45, 1329ΑΒ. De Oratione Dominica, PG 44, 1157CD. Ιn Canticum Canticorum, ed. H.Langerbeck, pp. 466,14-467,17. PG 44, 1116D-1117Β.
43. St. John Chrysostom commenting οn this passage makes the following observations: "...and not only do we behold the glory of God, but from it also receive a sort of splendor. Just as if pure silver be turned towards the sun's rays, it will itself also shoot forth rays, not from its οwη natural property merely but also from the solar lusture; so also doth the soul being cleansed and made brighter than silver, receive a ray from the glory of the Spirit, and send it back. Wherefore also he said "beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image from glory to glory", that of the 5pirit, "to glory", our οwη, that which is generated in us; and that, of such sort, as one might expect from the Lord the Spirit". Ιn Epist. ΙΙ ad Corinth. Homil.,PG 61, 44Β.