The Triumph οf Mysticism in Byzantium in the Fourteenth Century
From Byzantine Studies in Honor of Milton V. Anastos, Byzantina kai Metabyzantina, ed: Speros Vryonis jr, 4 vol., Malibu 1985.
When the proceedings began, the historian's worst fears were soon realized. He describes the council as a staged, theatrical spectacle, or what we might call a show-trial(66). But in the language of the Tome of 1351, the official summary of the proceedings, the council is represented as the occasion for a solemn and magisterial rendering of truth by the responsible authorities. It is a poised, rhetorical tapestry, depicting the virtually ecumenical vindication of the Orthodoxy of Palamas and the emperor's exercise of his obligatory trusteeship in supervising those affairs of the church that involved serious questions of ecclesiastical, and hence public, order. Since according to synodical traditions a tome was never a detailed record of conciliar debates, for a fuller picture of the diversity of οpiniοn one must look at other sources, such as the historical and theological works of Gregoras, though he is hardly a neutral source.(67) This is well known to scholars of the subject, but it should be pointed out that the full range of questions οn the theological, canonical, and political issues, bearing οn the Council of 1351, has not been studied very thoroughly. Ιn any case, the official conception and organization of the Council of 1351, which is so clearly reflected in the Tome, was mutually advantageous for the Palamites and the emperor. It was intended to and did confer οn the Palamites the more decisive legitimacy that, clearly, they still needed. This reveals the seriousness of the theological division. And it suggests that there were other, perhaps long-standing, theological traditions in late Byzantium besides that of individualistic visionary mysticism, as we have said. The cοuncil was also of great benefit to the emperor since it allowed him to play a role, as champion of Orthodoxy, which conferred greater legitimacy οn his usurpation. Indeed, it added to the opportunity, οn that he was undoubtedly speculating, of founding a new dynasty. The Church was represented by the Palamite Patriarch, Kallistos, who had succeeded Isidore upon the latter's death in 1347. Νο other Orthodox Patriarch was present, though the Tome emphasizes that Lazaros, the emperor's choice for the Patriarchate of Jerusalem, had participated actively in the previous Council of 1347, lending it presumably an ecumenical aura. But by 1349, Lazaros was back in Jerusalem, ousting his rival, Gerasimos, with the prestige of support from the distant Byzantine emperor. The only representative of the Oriental Patriarchs was Arsenios, Bishop of Tyre, a suffragen of the Patriarch of Antioch. Arsenios was against Palamism, as mentioned earlier. Αll the other bishops at the Council οf 1351 were regional Greek prelates. But after the council was over it was possible to present the Orthodox Church, both inside and outside the nοw limited geographical confines of the Byzantine Empire, with an impressive fait accompli. This made it easier to complete the consensus, which Palamism had gained only by rather halting stages since 1341. It also points toward the still dominating authority of Byzantium in the Orthodox world as a whole, from the isolated Orthodox communities in Syria and Palestine to the rising principality of Moscow far to the north, whose new, preeminent position in 14th century Russia was to a great extent the result of Byzantine, and specifically Hesychast inspired ecclesiastical diplomacy, as we now know.(68)
The opponents of Palamite theology are portrayed as victims of the perennial machinations of the Wretched One, Satan, who "casts about many different webs against the church, now withdrawing, now advancing."(69) The devil's remarkable ability to slip into the personality of the opponents of Palamas is noted with horror. The old opponents of the 1330s and 1340s Βarlaam and Akindynos, are enumerated. Then the Tome turns to the present opposition, the most recent victims of diabolic possession. Ηow could they help but attack the theology of Palamas, the Tome states: the influence of the devil had made them mentally ill!(70) Α transparent argumentum ad hominem, of course, but one with a long tradition in Christian polemic and not only in the language of theological victors who were in a position to compose their own account of conciliar proceedings. But the sources for the Council of 1351 leave no doubt as to who was the final authority in ruling on intellectual life. It was still the State, as in so many times past in Byzantium. Α speech from the throne recorded by the historian Gregoras, whom we have heen following through all these events, leaves no doubt. The emperor declared:
Ι think it will be clear to all that there was no one besides me for whom it was fitting to assume responsibility for these adjudications. For should the public welfare be preserved by imperial power if the latter is not able to judge its subjects? Ηow will lordship ever surpass servitude if the judgment of affairs is not subordinated to a single man who holds the supreme sovereignty and is able to restrain with his authority those who are inflated with ambition, and yet make equal those in need? The judicial dignity would be separated by far from imperial rule if another individual should be determining the order it was necessary for the emperor to give.(71)
Yet this reminder of his supreme authority as emperor and his profession of impartiality as judge could not quite disguise the de facto power of the Hesychast Monks. Not only was the emperor in their debt [though they also in his(72)] but they had also become a significant force in general in late Byzantium. Kantakuzenos had first realized this at the Councils of 1341,(73) and used it as a stepping stone to the imperial throne, receiving crucial factional support from the Hesychasts in return for his advocacy of their cause, as we have noted. These points are important to recall not because they impugn the theology of Palamas nor because they make Kantakuzenos into a mere cynic; but they demonstrate to what extent the political success of this theology was dependent on a political alliance.(74) This was not, however, the only thing that argues against the explanation of the victory of Palamism as an inherently necessary outcome of all Byzantine religious tradition.
The arguments traded back and forth at the Council of 1351 are only partly reflected in the Tome of 1351 and one must consult the works of Nicephorus Gregoras and other sources in order to understand all the intellectual and political aspects of the debates.(75) Many of the crucial points in the controversy have been discussed above, and this is not the place to launch into a thorough review of the Council of 1351 as a subject in itself, and all the points that were raised. What is apparent is that at this Council several of the different intellectual traditions of late Byzantium were involved in a major confrontation. We have enumerated them already, and have indicated that the extent to which one of them would eventually dominate would be determined in part by overall changes in Byzantine society, by a number of external, or non-intellectual factors. Barlaam's defeat in 1341 may be viewed as a rejection of the dialectical, philosophical approach in Byzantine theology. Ιn terms of prestige and influence, this was clearly always the weakest trend; it had indeed virtually collapsed in the late l lth century and early 12th century after a short development with John Italos and his students. It remained a marginal phenomenon after that. As we have said, the intellectual and political conditions that would have given scholasticism a central intellectual role were lacking in Byzantium.(76) The learned, scholarly exegetical tradition, represented by the Antirrhetics of Akindynos, had suffered a defeat in 1347, when Akindynos and his patron, the Patriarch Kalekas, were condemned. Gregoras, in his capacity as opponent of Palamas at the Council of 1351, represented the learned scholarly theologians who were essentially theological critics, though Gregoras was, inevitably, drawn into some exegesis. But his Greek style, especially in the Antirrhetics, is excessively literary and prolix, as if he were not altogether comfortable with theology.(77) And his allusions, which are so often classical rather than Christian, remind us further that he ultimately represented the Christian humanist tradition of late Byzantium that goes back to Psellos.(78) It was the prestige of this tradition, and of the scholarly theological approach, that was really at stake in 1351, far more so than in 1341. Barlaam, despite his obvious humanistic and scientific concerns, was above all a brilliant theological dialectician and repudiated especially for that reason.(79) If Gregoras was less cut out to represent the scholarly theological tradition than Christian Humanism, that was his misfortune and the misfortune of his side in the Controversy at that point in time. And it added to the advantages already possessed by Palamas who, though himself a very learned and literate man, was the advocate of ascetic mysticism.
During the proceedings, Palamas insisted not only on the real (as opposed to verbal or apophatic or gnoseological) distinction between God's unknowable essence and knowable energies: he also reaffirmed the potential visibility of the latter.(80) Thus, as before, he pushed the Patristic distinction between divine essence and energy to its very limit. It has often been overlooked that the opponents of Palamism objected much less to the essence-energy distinction than to the Palamite emphasis on the visibility of the divine energies. Αn invisible divine energy, as so clearly indicated by the Patristic sources, was basically acceptable to the Anti-Palamites, who were well aware of its Patristic use in this sense. Gregoras made this point again during the Council of 1351.(81) The rather unfair Palamite rejoinder was that such a view treated divine energy as material and created, because it denied any divine status to the data and visionary experience. Palamas also reminded those present that, in his view, the divine energies had always been acknowledged (in this knowable sense) by theology and Scripture through the "names of God." We have already noted the interrelationship of the divine energies to the divine logoi and the "names of God" in early Christian thought. If the names of God, such as "wisdom" and "light" and "life" and "power" and all the transcendent attributes that Scripture itself ascribes to God were not the divine energies, then only the divine essence could offer these qualities to human contemplative participation, which all parties agreed was impossible. According to Palamas, the divine energies were indeed identified by these names and extended their transcendent, knowable quality to "those who share in them."(82) As we have said, for Palamas the "divine names" stood for the knowable attributes of God, distinct from His essence. This did not exactly agree with Patristic apophatic tradition. But Palamas himself had said that he was willing to break with apophatic theology, if necessary, though he insisted that it had two senses, one negative in a unqualified way, which he rejected, and a higher sense he approved of in which only knowledge of the divine essence (not the divine energies) was denied.(83)
Palamas then connected the manifestations of the divine energies with real events specifically as noted in Scripture, such as the flaming chariot of Elias, the pillar of fire that guided Israel in the desert, the Burning Bush seen by Moses on Mt. Sinai, and the Transfiguration of Christ.(84) If the divine light had been visible on those occasions recorded by Scripture, surely it could also be seen now by those suitably initiated in Hesychast practice. The curtain goes up on a world of mysterious and miraculous appearances and visitations, which clearly were part of the religious experience of the Hesychasts and the mental and, indeed, geographical environment, in the widest sense, in which they lived. For Palamas, the visible manifestations of the divine specifically noted in Scripture were to be interpreted as the critical occasions on which divine energy had long ago made itself directly apparent to human beings; and these early manifestations were to be taken as precedents and paradigms for the contemplative experiences of the Hesychasts.(85)
Furthermore, Palamas answered his opponents' learned and scholarly objections by declaring that whereas they paid attention only to words, he was concerned with "facts:" Words were not so important to him, he said, implying that the Anti-Palamites were more interested in their learned formulations than in the supernatural reality beyond the reach of all language. He declared: Ι only need to say a little about words, for "truth and piety are not in words but in fact as Gregory of Nazianzus says: 'Where there is agreement over facts Ι do not concern myself with words'.(86) The Tome of 1351 recorded this statement, by which Palamas was, specifically, contrasting the precision with which he had written his Confession of Faith as opposed to the greater freedom with which he had written theological treatises. But it underscored another point, namely the contrast between all verbal formulations and the "facts" of Hesychast experience. For Palamas, if there could be agreement over the "facts" of mystical experience, then the verbal disagreements with his opponents could be resolved. And this in turn points toward the historical contrast we have stressed between the learned, scholarly traditions of later and probably earlier Byzantine theology, and the individual ascetic mystical tradition which was now being defended by Palamas. As Podskalsky has shown in detail, Palamas fell back on a similar view at a critical stage in his original dispute with Barlaam: The reality of the divine energy, the vision of the uncreated light, obviated any need to meet Barlaam's more and more compelling dialectical arguments with further such arguments of his own.(87) If Palamas had given up dialectic, he did not give up writing in his more conventionally Byzantine rhetorical fashion. But in the end, though he engaged in quite vast theological projects of this more typically Byzantine sort, it was not an end in itself, as it was for the theological exegetes and scholarly authors. It was only a means. Ιt was a theoretical shield in behalf of the naked Christian self supplied with the fundamentals of the Orthodox faith, the psycho-religious experience of the "gift of tears" of repentance (penthos) under a personal "spiritual father" and the method of breath control, continual prayer and contemplatlon as practiced in the late Byzantine period in isolated cells from the desert wilderness of Mt. Sinai to the forests and coastal promontories of Mt. Athos. This was what was at stake, not a set of abstract propositions, or exegetical analysis, or learned, scholarly commentary, or any sort of verbal truth whose role in piety was to serve as the intellectual foundation, not the goal, of religious experience. What did it matter if here and there Βarlaam, Akindynos, or Gregoras put their finger on a few valid points? Their exaggerated apophatic deference to the unknowability of God was a too anthropocentric denial of humanity's ultimate spiritual potential; and the apophatic principle of the unknowability of God was not threatened anyway by the knowable divine energies, he thought, since he made a distinction between the unknowable essence and the knowable energies, a distinction he claimed to be the same as that found in the fathers. But Palamas perhaps did not like to argue for argument's sake and in this he had particular roots in Byzantine ascetic spirituality. The aim of religion was not just to change people's minds but to change their lives -to make them capable of being transcendently illuminated, "deified," through the infused contemplation of God's perfections projecting into this world like rays of the sun.(88)
66. Byzantina historia, ΙΙ, 899, epi theatrou tosoutou.
67. Tome of 1351, MPG, 151, 717-774, esp. 718 C, 721 ΑΒ, 722 BC. Partially critical edition in Ioannes Karmires, Τa dogmatika kai symbolika mnemeia tes orthodoxou katholikes ekklesias, vol. 2 (Graz, 1968), 374-414. The Migne edition will be cited here since Karmires is nοt widely available, but the two can be correlated by column references to the Migne in Karmires. For the meaning of Tome in this period see Jean Darrouzes, Le registre synodale du Patriarchat byzantin de XIVe siecle (Archives de l'orient chretien, 12 [Ρaris, 1971]), 278-280.
68. Gregoras, Byzantina historia, ΙΙ, 882, states that Kantakuzenos intended the Council to have an ecumenical authority of significance: Katholiken synodon. Ιn the 14th century this of course meant ecumenical or universal within the Byzantine Church, but obviously did nοt include the Latin Church, fοr reasons already discussed. The personal aims of Kantakuzenos undoubtedly included some attempt at establishing his own dynasty, as is evident from the manner in which he associated his son, Matthew Kantakuzenos, with the Tome of 1351, for which see Paul Lemerle, "Le Tomos du concile de 1351 et l'horismos de Matthieu Cantacuzene," REB, 9 (1951), 55-64, and Meyendorff, Introduction, 150, note 112. Patriarch Lazaros, a client of Kantakuzenos, was not present, since he had returned to Jerusalem in 1349, according to Wirth, "Der Patriarchat," note 29 above, but he signed the Tome on copies now lost, see Meyendorff, Introduction, note 114. For the references in the Tome to Lazaros, see MPG, 151, 719 D and the prostagma or "Order" of the emperor, appended to the Tome, certifying its full legal force as law, MPG, 151, 771 D. For Arsenios see notes 25 and 29 above. For the vast geographical perspectives of late Byzantine ecclesiastical diplomacy, see Meyendorff, Byzantium and the rise of Russia, note 63 above.
69. MPG, 151, 717 C-718 Α.
70. MPG, 151, 718 Α-720 C; esp. 720 C:"ta ekeinon eschatos nosountas".
71. Byzantina historia, ΙΙ, 906-907.
72. Weiss, Ιoannes Kantakuzenos, 103-137.
73. Kantakuzenos seems to have grasped the political significance of the Hesychast monks at the Council of 1341, that is, the first council of that year, held in June, where Barlaam was condemned. (The second council, held in August after the death of Emperor Andronikos ΙΙΙ, condemned Akindynos. See note 6 above). Up to this point, Kantakuzenos had been Barlaam's patron. See Kantakuzenos, Historiarum, ΙΙΙ, 553-554.
74. J. Meyendorff, "Projects de Concile oecumenique en 1367: un dialogue inedit entre Jean Cantacuzene et le legat Ρaul," Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 14 (1960), 149177, esp. 149-152, repr. in Meyendorff, "Byzantine Hesychasm":
75. Ιn addition to the Tome of 1351 the most important Palamite sources for the Council οf 1351 or closely related matters are Philotheos, Twelve Antirrhetics against Gregoras, MPG, 151, 773-1138; the twelfth part of this work is available in complete form only in Uspenskii, Istoriia Afona, vol. 3, pt. 2, 828 ff. (see note 29 above). Palamas, Antirrhetics against Gregoras, scheduled for publication as vol. 4 in Syngrammata (see note 2 above). The chief anti-Palamite sources are the Byzantina historia of Gregoras, especially vol. ΙΙ, Chapters XVIII-ΧΧΙ and his Antirrhetika I, published by Beyer; though the latter was finished before the Council it furnishes extensive background material on the theological views of Gregoras expressed at the Council as recorded in his Byzantina historia. His Second Antirrhetics, directed against the Tome of 1351, are being prepared for publication by Μ. Paparozzi. After Gregoras, the most important anti-Palamite sources are the protests of Arsenios of Tyre against the Council of 1351; they remain unedited except for excerpts and discussion in Mercati, Notizie (note 25 above), 226-229 who attributes them to Theodore Dexios, but see Meyendorff, Introduction, 409.
76. Clucas, The Trial of John Italos (note 63 above), Ch. IV.
77. The judgment of Guilland, "Essai sur Nicephore Gregoras" (note 1 above), 286, still seems relevant: "Gregoras ne fut theologien que par occasion. Son gout le portait plus a la rhetorique et a la plemique qu'a la speculation theologique. La Querelle de l'Hesychasme le detourna de ses études favorites." What is immediately striking is the chatty, discursive characteτ of the Antirrhetics and their mixture of mainly expository and narrative elements. The stylistic models appear to be historiography and epistolography, that is, the literary genres of the Christian humanist, combined with the scholarly theological tradition of authors like Euthymios Zigabenos, whom Gregoras repeatedly refers to as an authority on Bogomilism, as Beyer notes in Nikephoros Gregoras Antirrhetika Ι, "Quellen und Parallelstellen": 488. He also makes fun of Barlaam and Akindynos. The overall effect is that of a literary tour de force with relatively limited plan or organization. This was recognized at the time by Philotheos Kokkinos, who mentioned the organizational weakness and rambling style of the Antirrhetics of Gregoras as obvious defects. For reference and a preliminary evaluation of these criticisms see Guilland, Essai sur Nicephore Gregoras, 289-291.
78. Nikephoros Gregoras Antirrhetika Ι, "Quellen und Parallelstellen": 478-488. Among Christian authors he relies most on the Cappadocian Fathers and the Pseudo-Dionysios, with their emphasis on negative theology. See also Nikephoros Gregoras Antirrhetika, 31-35: "Gregoras' literarisches Schaffen in der Sicht des Metropoliten von Ephesos."
79. Tome of 1341, MPG, 151, 681 Β; this is also confirmed by the historical work of the Emperor John Kantakuzenos, for which see Historiarum, Ι, 543, 551-552 (note 13 above) who, however, also incorrectly ascribes Barlaam's syllogistic method to Latin influence. This was finally disproved by Podskalsky (note 4 above). While the Tome of 1347 and the Tome of 1351 routinely accused Akindynos and Gregoras of holding the same views as Barlaam, the specific accusations of using Aristotelian logic were not repeated. Gregoras makes fun of Palamas' inability to use syllogisms effectively in the latter's attacks in the 1330s against Βarlaam's treaties on the Holy Spirit; Gregoras then repudiates the use οf syllogisms in theology; see Nikephoros Gregoras Antirrhetika I, 281-295. Beyer, note 7, pp. 278-280 points out that Palamas had, initially, tried to use logic against Barlaam. Barlaam had exposed the internal weaknesses of Palamas' syllogisms (their circularity); Palamas in turn then repudiated any use of logic in theology at all, while continuing to make occasional use of poorly constructed logical arguments, even in the Triads (Defense des saints hesychastes). This same point was made by Podskalsky, Theologie und Philosophie, 155.
80. Tome of 1351: MPG, 725 Β; 726 ABC. These points were emphasized at the third and fourth sessions of the Council, respectively. See also Gregoras, Byzantina historia, ΙΙ, 967-969.
81. Byzantina historia, ΙΙ, 967-968, specifically against the ascription of literal divine energy to the Light of Tabor, that is, the Transfiguration of Christ, and 990, where Gregoras appealed to a passage in Basil of Caesarea which declared that the divine energies could be apprehended or intuited from human experience of natural events without stating that the divine energies and their visible physical results were identical. Divine energy was only to be inferred from visible phenomena as demonstrating the power of the Creator in Creation but the energy itself remained beyond direct comprehension, and inextricably linked to the divine essence. For the passage in Basil, see MPG, 32, 869 Α, and my discussion above in note 49. For affirmation of divine energy as invisibly active but inseparable from the divine essence see also Byzantina historia, 974-975, where Gregoras, at the Council of 1351 quotes Maximus Confessor, Ambiguorum Liber, MPG, 91, 1184 BCD this appeal to Maximus Confessor was recorded with indignation by the Tome of 1351, MPG, 151, 729 C, where the anti-Palamites are accused of misinterpreting Maximus. It is clear that Akindynos had also accepted the conception of divine energy as a transcendent, invisible attribute of God; see Hero, Letters of Αkindynos, no. 27, pp. 92-95. See also Manuel Candal, "La Confession Antipalamitica de Gregorio Acindino," OCP, 25 (1959), 215-264. Perhaps more will be revealed on this subject when Nadal publishes the Antirrhetics of Akindynos. Ιn the meantime see Nadal, "La critique par Akindynos," (note 5 above). Αt the fourth session of the Council of 1351 the Palamites repeated their routine charges that the views of their opponents in effect deprived God of a true divine energy, thus leaving God as a being without energy, while it also reduced such manifestations of divine energy as the transfiguration to the level of material, created light; see Tome of 1351, MPG, 151, 726 BC.
82. This is more apparent from Gregoras, "Byzantina historia", ΙΙ, 967-968, than from the parallel passages in the Tome of 1351, MPG, and 151, 730 ABC. For passages in Gregoras, Antirrhetika Ι, refuting this view of the divine names see 201, 269, 307, 375, 383, 385. (Α thorough analysis of the intellectual conflict between Palamas and Gregoras must await the publication of Gregoras, Antirrhetika ΙΙ, being edited by Paparozzi, and Palamas, "Antirrhetics against Gregoras", are edited by Chrestu in Palamas, Syngrammata.
83. Defense des saints hesychastes, Ι, 3, 19-21; ΙΙ, 3, 16-17, 20, 25, 31-32, 35, 49, 53 and 65 where he distinguishes between two conceptions of apophatic theology. 84. Gregoras, Βyzantina historia, ΙΙ, 968, records these illustrations by Palamas, but they are not mentioned in the Tome of 1351. They were, however, cited as illustrations by Palamas in Defense des saints hesychastes, ΙΙΙ, 1, 40. Beyer, in "Die Lichtlehr der Monche," 502-503, asserts that these precedents go back to Gregory of Sinai and ultimately the 4th century Pseudo-Macarius, who was allegedly associated with Messalianism.
85. Gregoras, "Βyzantina hίstoria", ΙΙ, 968-969 (a verbatim quotation of a statement by Palamas at the Council of 1351). Ιn the Tome of 1351 οnly the transfiguration was cited at the fourth session as a Scriptural example: MPG, 151, 726 ABC. After the fourth session the anti-Palamites were condemned and excluded from the final theological discussions οf the fifth session: MPG, 151, 731 D. During this fifth session, Ρalamite theology was confirmed with regard to all major points in question; again, οnly the transfiguration was cited as a Scriptural example of the divine light: 753 CD-754 ABCD. One is inclined tο think that the Tome of 1351, as the official record of the proceedings, was edited so as to emphasize the dogmatic issues and play down Hesychast experience.
86. Tome of 1351, MPG, 151, 723 BC; 725 Α. Αt the second and third sessions, respectively.
87. Theologie und Philosophie, 155.
88. Tome of 1351, MPG, 151, 725 ABCD. Here Palamas emphasizes that he would never have gotten involved in elaborate dogmatic issues if the "facts" (of Hesychast experience) had nοt been challenged by his opponents. Αll of these statements suggest that he was more than aware that his treatises were open tο some argument, or at least that there had always been the risk of a gap between the "facts" οf Hesychast experience and the "words" used to define and defend them. The emphasis οn salvation as opposed tο knowledge is fundamental throughout Palamite theology, especially in "Defense des saints hesychastes". Palamas had compared the divine energies with the rays οf the sun in the latter work in Triad ΙΙ, 3: 19.